Does the miner machine get any other type of reward except confirmation of transaction in bitcoin?

As a result of mining, miners receive income from two sources

  • The mining reward per block, which halves approximately every 4 years.
  • The transaction fees for the transactions the miner includes in the block.

Nothing else.

The miner includes as the first transaction in the block (the “coinbase” transaction) a transaction with no inputs and with outputs to one or more addresses of their choice with a total amount which is less than or equal to the sum of other included transactions fees and the current mining reward .

bitcoin core – the two miner type of reward

the definition of a block in the blockchain is
“A block records some or all of the most recent Bitcoin transactions that have not yet entered any prior blocks. Thus, a block is like a page of a ledger or record book. Each time a block is ‘completed’, it gives way to the next block in the blockchain.”
this is acceptable miners get a reward for proof of work(confirm transactions)
but what exactly do miners when say they have a process for creating a block(and get a reward for them)?
(In other words what exactly this process? Is it possible to remove it?)

Can someone read vertcoin one click miner log and find the error with it?

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:40.9673669Z, P2Pool_Load: Loaded: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:45.9942426Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Newtonsoft.Json.JsonReaderException: Unexpected character encountered while parsing value: <. Path ”, line 0, position 0.
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.ParseValue()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.Read()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.ReadFrom(JsonReader reader, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json)
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.P2Pool.Get_P2Pool_API()

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:46.0182329Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:46.0272357Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Scan Completed: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:46.9050714Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Newtonsoft.Json.JsonReaderException: Unexpected character encountered while parsing value: <. Path ”, line 0, position 0.
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.ParseValue()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.Read()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.ReadFrom(JsonReader reader, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json)
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.P2Pool.Get_P2Pool_API()

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:46.9192472Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:46.9289017Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Scan Completed: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:50.2201253Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Newtonsoft.Json.JsonReaderException: Unexpected character encountered while parsing value: <. Path ”, line 0, position 0.
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.ParseValue()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.Read()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.ReadFrom(JsonReader reader, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json)
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.P2Pool.Get_P2Pool_API()

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:50.2331225Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:50.2431213Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Scan Completed: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:50.8185569Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Newtonsoft.Json.JsonReaderException: Unexpected character encountered while parsing value: <. Path ”, line 0, position 0.
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.ParseValue()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.Read()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.ReadFrom(JsonReader reader, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json)
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.P2Pool.Get_P2Pool_API()

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:50.8499435Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:28:50.8589397Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Scan Completed: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:22.3384064Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Newtonsoft.Json.JsonReaderException: Unexpected character encountered while parsing value: <. Path ”, line 0, position 0.
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.ParseValue()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.Read()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.ReadFrom(JsonReader reader, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json)
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.P2Pool.Get_P2Pool_API()

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:22.3534606Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:22.3634540Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Scan Completed: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:22.9292080Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Newtonsoft.Json.JsonReaderException: Unexpected character encountered while parsing value: <. Path ”, line 0, position 0.
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.ParseValue()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.Read()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.ReadFrom(JsonReader reader, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json)
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.P2Pool.Get_P2Pool_API()

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:22.9432087Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:22.9532017Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Scan Completed: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:28.7156719Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Newtonsoft.Json.JsonReaderException: Unexpected character encountered while parsing value: <. Path ”, line 0, position 0.
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.ParseValue()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.Read()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.ReadFrom(JsonReader reader, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json)
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.P2Pool.Get_P2Pool_API()

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:28.7286731Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:28.7396647Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Scan Completed: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:29.5793736Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Newtonsoft.Json.JsonReaderException: Unexpected character encountered while parsing value: <. Path ”, line 0, position 0.
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.ParseValue()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.JsonTextReader.Read()
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.ReadFrom(JsonReader reader, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json, JsonLoadSettings settings)
    at Newtonsoft.Json.Linq.JToken.Parse(String json)
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.P2Pool.Get_P2Pool_API()

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:29.5923746Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:29.6023685Z, Get_P2Pool_API: Scan Completed: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:35.6658481Z, LoadSettingsJSON: LoadSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:35.6982043Z, Form1_Load: Loaded: OK, V:1.2.0.0

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:39.2186320Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:45.8086605Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:49.2279423Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:50.2306274Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:51.2213352Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:52.7240815Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:53.7395482Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:54.6517530Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:55.2336001Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:56.2281116Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:57.0627314Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:57.4174693Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:57.7149962Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:57.8835441Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:29:58.9286384Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:00.2161457Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:00.7125503Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:00.9987016Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:01.8167663Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:02.7226531Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:10.4886311Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:12.7354465Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:46.8913601Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:51.2217075Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:52.2197797Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:30:58.1028229Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:10.0033319Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:14.1901643Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:15.3861579Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:17.7450989Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:18.9835642Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:25.0119342Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:25.4989882Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:25.7389823Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:25.9480804Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:25.9620723Z, Kill_Miner: System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception (0x80004005): Access is denied
    at System.Diagnostics.ProcessManager.OpenProcess(Int32 processId, Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessHandle(Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.Kill()
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.Main.Kill_Miner()

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:25.9710664Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:25.9770600Z, Kill_Miner: Kill_Miner: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:26.1060795Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:26.8250738Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:27.0650677Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:27.0760629Z, Kill_Miner: System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception (0x80004005): Access is denied
    at System.Diagnostics.ProcessManager.OpenProcess(Int32 processId, Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessHandle(Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.Kill()
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.Main.Kill_Miner()

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:27.0850555Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:27.0910513Z, Kill_Miner: Kill_Miner: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:31.1970812Z, settings_Load: Loaded: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:53.0948756Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:53.1008719Z, Settings_Closing: Closed: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:31:55.6378600Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:03.4268036Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:07.6802917Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:13.0758421Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:14.5077212Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:15.7368557Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:17.2817020Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:18.6906905Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:34.5497235Z, SystemLogToolStripMenuItem_Click: SystemLogToolStripMenuItem(), Load Miner Log: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:42.8384572Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:43.8804155Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.3005378Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.4795015Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.4954945Z, Kill_Miner: System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception (0x80004005): Access is denied
    at System.Diagnostics.ProcessManager.OpenProcess(Int32 processId, Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessHandle(Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.Kill()
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.Main.Kill_Miner()

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.5084852Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.5194781Z, Kill_Miner: Kill_Miner: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.6226122Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.8035016Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.9528463Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.9688376Z, Kill_Miner: System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception (0x80004005): Access is denied
    at System.Diagnostics.ProcessManager.OpenProcess(Int32 processId, Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessHandle(Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.Kill()
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.Main.Kill_Miner()

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.9838267Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:44.9968257Z, Kill_Miner: Kill_Miner: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:32:49.3573109Z, SystemLogToolStripMenuItem_Click: SystemLogToolStripMenuItem(), Load Miner Log: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:06.7767841Z, settings_Load: Loaded: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:08.7703274Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:08.7833194Z, Settings_Closing: Closed: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:14.3947519Z, FileDirectoryToolStripMenuItem_Click: MinerConfigToolStripMenuItem(), Load Miner Config: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:15.6346835Z, P2PoolConfigToolStripMenuItem_Click: P2PoolConfigToolStripMenuItem(), Load P2Pool Config: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:20.1886371Z, ContactToolStripMenuItem_Click: Contact(), Load Browser: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:37.0799722Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:38.2047076Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:38.3675029Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:38.5211800Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:38.5367964Z, Kill_Miner: System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception (0x80004005): Access is denied
    at System.Diagnostics.ProcessManager.OpenProcess(Int32 processId, Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessHandle(Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.Kill()
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.Main.Kill_Miner()

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:38.5524189Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:38.5680453Z, Kill_Miner: Kill_Miner: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:38.6839609Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:38.8532528Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:45.2725647Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:33:47.9500366Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:36:56.1188807Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:37:49.9267060Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:37:53.5075112Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:37:58.6411025Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:00.4913389Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:00.8925029Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:01.8401507Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:03.3643538Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:05.0909546Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:05.8576321Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:10.5660204Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:12.3854466Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:26.8430625Z, settings_Load: Loaded: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:32.6013662Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:32.6078744Z, Settings_Closing: Closed: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:36.5608252Z, FileDirectoryToolStripMenuItem_Click: MinerConfigToolStripMenuItem(), Load Miner Config: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:38:38.2505856Z, SystemLogToolStripMenuItem_Click: SystemLogToolStripMenuItem(), Load Miner Log: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:39:08.1836791Z, Main_Closing:

  • 2021-03-03T19:39:08.2006680Z, Main_Closing: Closing: OK

  • 2021-03-03T19:39:08.2176565Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:39:08.2344378Z, Kill_Miner: System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception (0x80004005): Access is denied
    at System.Diagnostics.ProcessManager.OpenProcess(Int32 processId, Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessHandle(Int32 access, Boolean throwIfExited)
    at System.Diagnostics.Process.Kill()
    at VertcoinOneClickMiner.Main.Kill_Miner()

  • 2021-03-03T19:39:08.2500623Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:39:08.2500623Z, Kill_Miner: Kill_Miner: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:39:08.2656838Z, Kill_P2Pool: Kill_P2Pool: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:39:08.2813114Z, Main_Closing: ================================================================================

  • 2021-03-03T19:40:08.1262091Z, LoadSettingsJSON: LoadSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:40:08.1624775Z, Form1_Load: Loaded: OK, V:1.2.0.0

  • 2021-03-03T19:40:12.3152441Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:40:15.4063680Z, SaveSettingsJSON: SaveSettings: OK.

  • 2021-03-03T19:40:17.7134291Z, SystemLogToolStripMenuItem_Click: SystemLogToolStripMenuItem(), Load Miner Log: OK

  • mining hardware – miner v3.0 wont mine with my nvidia geforce 940MX graphics card

    so, I recently got into mining bitcoin and I’m trying to use my laptop to mine some (even though it wont be much :/ ).

    The problem I’m having is that miner v3.0 shows an error next to my graphics card and wont mine with it. I checked on the support page and found that the graphics card must support CUDA 5.0 or higher, whiich the GeForce 940MXX does.

    I am confused as to why it wont work. Any help is appreciated.

    taproot – What is the point of miner signaling in a soft fork activation mechanism? What should the threshold be on miner signaling?

    What is the point of miner signaling in a soft fork activation mechanism?

    Miners are signaling readiness for a soft fork activation, they are not signaling to support (or vote for) a soft fork. It seems generally accepted at the time of writing (February 2021) that any opposition towards a soft fork should be raised and discussed before an activation mechanism is proposed. If arguments are raised that haven’t previously been considered or that opposition is material and sustained across the wider community, activation for that soft fork shouldn’t be considered.

    Ideally you want as many miners enforcing the Taproot rules at the point it activates as possible. Otherwise an invalid Taproot spend could creep into a block and some miners wouldn’t reject it as they would be treating it as an anyone-can-spend. It would need a small, naturally occurring re-org to get that invalid Taproot spend out of the blockchain. This wouldn’t be a disaster but ideally you don’t want a greater frequency or greater magnitude of re-orgs than usually occur. Ideally you want all miners enforcing the Taproot rules from the point of activation.

    There is also the consideration of miners deliberately or inadvertently producing blocks with invalid Taproot spends in them and fooling SPV/non-upgraded clients that is discussed here.

    As devrandom pointed out on IRC there is motivation for presumably unready miners who haven’t yet signaled to get ready urgently if the soft fork is activating soon. They don’t want to expend resources mining blocks (with an invalid Taproot spend in them) that will ultimately be rejected by a proportion of the network. But that doesn’t guarantee they will be ready and may lead to miners rushing to get ready for activation which again is not optimal.

    What should the threshold be on miner signaling?

    This is harder to answer as the threshold chosen appears to be a trade-off between ensuring as many miners are ready to activate the soft fork as possible and preventing a small minority of miners from unnecessarily delaying the soft fork for political or strategic reasons. With the SegWit soft fork in 2017, a BIP 148 user activated soft fork needed to be proposed because miners were assessed to be deliberately blocking activation to attempt to force through an additional block size increase.

    In this developer survey conducted by AJ Towns the question “What do you consider a reasonable threshold for activation by hashpower supermajority?” it appears 90 percent or 95 percent would be the preferred threshold. The threshold for the SegWit activation was set initially at 95 percent.

    miner configuration – KNC Neptune (mining hardware)

    I have a two KNC Neptune miners that I can no longer log into, as I don’t have a record of the username/password. In order to correct this, I need the executable firmware update files in re-order to re-flash them using the SD slot.

    I CANNOT login to the neptunes via the network, so I CANNOT update using the .bin files (like as https://github.com/KnCMiner/images/tree/master/Neptune) on the miner configuration webpage. I’m aware of these files, but I cannot use them. Instead, I need the files I can put on a SD card and update the board that way.

    Does anyone have those executables still?

    utxo – How does a miner verify a transaction which is spending an output of another transaction in the same block?

    It is mentioned in this post that:

    If all validation of all transactions in a block succeeds, the consumed inputs are removed from the database, and all outputs of those transactions added as fresh unspent outputs in the database, allowing them to be spent by future blocks.

    But if the UTXO set is updated only after appending a block, and a miner only checks the UTXO set for understanding the spent/unspent outputs, how will verification happen if a transaction (say tx_B) in a block spends an output of another transaction (say tx_A) in the same block? In another word, how will tx_B understand the state of the output of tx_A if the output is not stored in the UTXO set yet?