Studio Lighting – Light Modifier Compatibility with Various Brands Speed ​​Ring?

Your Adorama Monolight was designed for modifiers with a Bowens S-mount, so the Bowens Stripbox should work just fine. The Bowens bracket has 3 tabs on the modifier that you turn to lock it to the light itself. It's a very solid fit and the modifier does not move once it's locked in place.

Paul C Buff uses another mount (Balcar). This is a grooved ring on the modifier, and there are four spring-biased clips on the light that grab this groove and hold the modifier to the light. I've used this with Einstein's and the advantage is that you can rotate the modifier as you like, instead of fixing it with Bowens in one of three positions.

To use the buff softbox with your Bowens light, you must purchase a new Bowens mounting ring ($ 10 to $ 15), remove the balcar ring from the buff softbox, and then attach the bowens ring to the softbox , It's not that difficult – Buff Lights use thumbscrews to hold the ring to the softbox so you do not even need a screwdriver – but remember, you do that with a rented softbox. So be careful not to mess it up. And do not forget to convert it back before returning the softbox.

unity – Error CS1585: The member modifier "private" must precede the type and name of the member

As Casanova says, it looks like your problem is here:

public UnityStandardAssets.Characters.FirstPerson.MouseLook

// Use this for initialization 
private void Start()

Note that you did not finish the explanation of yours MouseLook Field, or end the line with a semicolon. The parser thus determines that the declaration must be continued in one of the following lines. It continues to read, ignoring spaces and comments until a complete declaration is made. In his reading, you think that you are trying to say the following:

public UnityStandardAssets...MouseLook private void Start() { ...

… what is gibberish. This is not a valid declaration in C #. So she can not analyze her and she's the first to say she was wrong about the declaration you have private After the type, if modifiers like these must be in front of the type. That's true, but in context the real solution is this:

public UnityStandardAssets.Characters.FirstPerson.MouseLook giveThisVariableAName;

// Use this for initialization
public void Start()

Now there is a complete declaration that the parser can find:

public      UnityStandardAssets...MouseLook    giveThisVariableAName  ;
 ^ Modifier   ^ Type                            ^ Identifier          ^ End of Line

That's how it parses Start Declaration as a separate statement instead of trying to interpret it as a continuation of the above line.

This is a basic programming syntax error that does not require game-specific knowledge to solve. Therefore, you should always look for such topics on our general programming page StackOverflow. You often find them already answered, sometimes several times.

macos – How do I assign the modifier fn to another key modifier (on the internal keyboard)?

Under Settings> Keyboard> Key modifiers I can re-assign (swap) all key modifiers (Command, Option, Ctrl) with the exception of Fn. In fact, for the function modifier, the only option I can map it to is the function key.

So how could I reassign the fn modifier to the ctrl key (on the internal kbd)?
Macbook Pro 10.15?

lubuntu – Defines the File Manager drop action when the modifier key is pressed

When I drag a file from one file manager window to another, the file is moved from the source folder to the destination folder. If I keep the control key pressed, the file will be copied. If I hold down the Shift key, the file will also be moved. If you hold down the Alt key, the window moves instead, so I ignore this case.

I'd like to change this behavior to run a script of my choice that retrieves the source path / file and the destination path if the Shift key is held down when the file is dropped. Alternatively, it would work if I could copy the path on the source page from the menu or with the keyboard shortcut (for example, Ctrl + C) and then have a menu option / keyboard shortcut that performs the action in the destination window.

My main use (but not only) will be doing things like creating hard / soft links.

I use PCManFM under LUbuntu 18.04, but if another file manager is the only way, that's okay too.

Character Creation – How Does the Opaque Modifier Affect Other Defenses Than Toughness?

It would work more or less the same way and require a certain bonus level to get through. If you are Opaque for all 10 ranks of your willpower, all effects of Rank 5 or less are blocked that require Willpower. If you have an opaque 10 on your Dodge, a ranged attack would need at least a +5 bonus to hit you.

Unfortunately, I have not yet found an official verdict on this topic (and I suspect there will never be one for 3e as they no longer allow Steve Kenson to join the forum for questions on official rules). In 2e, he said in 2005 that only tenacity could be impermeable (although it is possible that this would be a 1e answer given the year 2005, when 2e had just been published).

Other rescues can not be impermeable, just toughness.

He later moved to Mind Shield's 2e construct in 2008, where he saved Impervious on Will by not contradicting the questioner's request to break the cost of Mind Shield. However, there is nothing on Straight Defense (or Dodge Defense).

Attack – Add the ability modifier or the ability bonus to the "hit"?

From the term "bonus action" I take over D & D 5th Ed. So with this assumption, the answer is YesYou use the ability mod and the ability mod together,

You increase your ability bonus by your attack roll when you attack with a weapon you have abilities with, or when you attack with a spell. "

"Skill Modifier The ability modifier used for a melee weapon attack is Strength, and the ability modifier used for a ranged weapon attack is Skill, and weapons with finesse or thrown trait break this rule."

"You can use a bonus action to attack with a light melee weapon you hold, and you can not increase the bonus attack's damage by your ability modifier unless that modifier is negative."

dnd 5e – If you have a negative modifier for spell abilities, how much damage does the Greenflame Blade Cantrip inflict on the second target under level 5?

The description of green flame blade Cantrip (SCAG, p. 143) says:

As part of the action used to cast this spell, you must make a melee attack with a weapon against a creature within range of the spell, otherwise the spell will fail. If hit, the target suffers the normal effects of the attack, and green fire jumps from the target to another creature of your choice that you can see within 5 feet of the target. The second creature takes Fire damage equal to your Spell Cast ability modifier.

Suppose you have a negative magic modifier. For example, your magic skill is Intellect and you have an Intellect modifier of -1. You poured green flame blade (and your character is below the 5th level). How much damage does the second creature take? None, -1 or 1 damage?

dnd 5e – Do you add your strength modifier once or twice to an unarmed punch?

Unarmed strikes are considered melee attacks, but do not include a weapon

Unarmed strikes are melee attacks, although they were not carried out with a weapon.

The errata for the PHB is:

Weapons (p. 149). Unarmed strike does not belong on the weapon table.

This is even more clearly expressed in the Sage Advice Compendium:

(…) However, an unarmed strike counts as a melee weapon attack
The body of the attacker is not considered a weapon.


The game often makes exceptions to general rules, and this is an important exception: Unarmed strikes are considered melee attacks, even though they are not weapons.

Unarmed strikes only follow the rule for unarmed strikes

There are rules for weapon attacks and rules for spell attacks, but no rules for melee attacks that contain neither weapon nor spell. Unarmed strikes, as they are strange, are subject to a rule violation.

In particular, the second rule that you mentioned does not apply because it only applies to attacks with a weapon.

When attacking with a weapon (…)

Luckily, they recognized this and wrote a special rule only for unarmed strikes:

If hit, an unarmed strike will cause 1 + stick damage to your strength modifier.

So you use this rule (and only this rule) to calculate the damage for an unarmed strike.

How to use builder pattern combined with protected access modifier?

I'm reading a book in Design Patterns and below is a code example used by the author. The author tries to create an HTML builder as follows (code in C #):

public class HtmlElement
    public string Name, Text;
    public List Elements = new List();

    public HtmlElement() { }
    public HtmlElement(string name, string text)
        Name = name;
        Text = text;
    // factory method
    public static HtmlBuilder Create(string name)
       return new HtmlBuilder(name);

//builder class
public class HtmlBuilder
    protected readonly string rootName;
    protected HtmlElement root = new HtmlElement();
    public HtmlBuilder(string rootName)
        this.rootName = rootName;
        root.Name = rootName;
    public HtmlBuilder AddChild(string childName, string childText)
        var e = new HtmlElement(childName, childText);
        return this;            //fluent api

     // to return a HtmlElement object
    public static implicit operator HtmlElement(HtmlBuilder builder)
        return builder.root;
    public override string ToString() => root.ToString();

then the author says:

Msgstr "" "To simply force users to use the builder if they have one HtmlElement Object, we have hidden all constructors from HtmlElement Class as ":

public class HtmlElement
   protected HtmlElement() { }
   protected HtmlElement(string name, string text)
      Name = name;
      Text = text;

so users like to go

HtmlElement root = HtmlElement.Create("ul").AddChildFluent("li", "hello").AddChildFluent("li", "world");


I do not understand the following: The author has changed the access modifier from HtmlElementThe designers of protected, which means, that HtmlBuilder Class can not access the protected constructors like

protected HtmlElement root = new HtmlElement();    // not allowed

It also means that we have to allow that HtmlBuilder inherited from HtmlElement? But they are not inheritance contexts at all. How can I change it?

dnd 5e – What is the maximum static modifier for the damage of a melee attack?

I'm currently setting up a Level 20 sorcerer to do the absolute maximum static damage on a melee attack (static damage, I mean damage that does not depend on a litter).

A level 20 hexblade warlock with a 20 in charisma may have the following additions:

  • +5 of 20 Cha
  • +5: Life Drinker (Charisma-based)
  • +6: Hexclane Bane (Ability Bonus)
  • +10: Great Weapon Master
  • +3: Magic weapon

This gives a total of +29 damage.

Are there any other methods besides Tomes to increase my charisma, or the legendary item that increases the proficiency bonus by 1, to increase the area damage of which I know nothing?

The answer does not have to be for a Hexblade Warlock. That way, I added the highest static bonus to a damage roll.

Multiclassing, RAW, RAI, Errata and Jeremy Crawford tweets are accepted. Please explain your opinion or facts logically and quote your sources!