As of 2021, are there any airlines where masks are optional?

Every flight I’ve taken since April 2020 had mandatory masks onboard and it seems like all airlines actively require them:

  • The FAA continued to mandate masks in the US even when they became optional for vaccinated people
  • New Zealand mandated them on domestic flights even at their lowest public health alert level
  • Western Australia mandates masks on-board even when no COVID outbreaks are present in the state
  • Masks are still mandatory for domestic UK flights even though masking in general is optional in the UK
  • SAS Airlines is very strict on masks even though they’re optional in Sweden

To make it clear what an "airline" is:

  1. They must fly to an airport with an IATA code
  2. They must still be operating scheduled flights as of 2021 (so charter airlines are excluded)
  3. Their tickets must be available for sale to the general public
  4. They must be located in a country which reported at least one COVID case (so small Pacific islands which never had a single case are excluded)

How do I pass optional arguments in JSON to bitcoin-cli createwallet without using curl?

I need to create an encrypted blank wallet, and for this purpose I need to furnish
bitcoin-cli --testnet createwallet testwallet with two more optional arguments.
Let the passphrase be “k3YQN3JOtyHMlRCg4v4”. How do I do this?

I came across this example from bitcoin-cli help createwallet:

curl --user myusername --data-binary '{"jsonrpc": "1.0", "id": "curltest", "method": "createwallet", "params": ["testwallet"]}' -H 'content-type: text/plain;' http://127.0.0.1:8332/

Whereas I’ve used curl before for scraping I would rather avoid using just creating a wallet?

I have already figured out a way of how to do this using -named:

/home/jerzy/bitcoin/bin/bitcoin-cli --testnet -named createwallet wallet_name=testwtwo blank=true passphrase=k3YQN3JOtyHMlRCg4v4

Now, I would like to do the same by passing the optional argumets in JSON.
I’ve tried all the following but to no avail:

/home/jerzy/bitcoin/bin/bitcoin-cli --testnet createwallet testwtwo '{ "blank":"true", "passphrase":"k3YQN3JOtyHMlRCg4v4" }'
error code: -1
error message:
JSON value is not a boolean as expected

/home/jerzy/bitcoin/bin/bitcoin-cli --testnet createwallet testwtwo '{ "blank":true, "passphrase":"k3YQN3JOtyHMlRCg4v4" }'
error code: -1
error message:
JSON value is not a boolean as expected

/home/jerzy/bitcoin/bin/bitcoin-cli --testnet createwallet testwtwo '{ blank : true, passphrase : "k3YQN3JOtyHMlRCg4v4" }'
error: Error parsing JSON: { blank : true, passphrase : "k3YQN3JOtyHMlRCg4v4" }

How do I do this?

Skip middle optional arguments – Mathematica Stack Exchange

Is there a way to skip some middle optional arguments?
For example for this function:

f({a_: 80, b_: 90}, {c_: 30, d_: 20}) := 
 Print("a=", a, ", b=", b, ", c=", c, ", d=", d)

Call something like this:

f({(* empty or some symbols*), 3}, {4, 5})

and get the result:

a=80, b=3, c=4, d=5

P.S. Function will have many parameters and will have complicated form, so the answer described here may be not applicable.

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pr.probability – $exists c inmathbb{R}_+^*,forall p,rin mathbb{R}_+,E[|X_{p+r}-X_r||mathcal{F}_r] leq c$ implies the optional stopping theorem

Consider a integrable submartingale $(X_r)_{r in mathbb{R}_+}$ relative to $(mathcal{F}_{r})_{r in mathbb{R}_+}$ and such that $$exists c in mathbb{R}_+^*,forall k in mathbb{N},E(|X_{k+1}-X_k||mathcal{F}_k) leq c (P)$$ $theta_1$ and $theta_2$ are two $(mathcal{F}_r)_r$-stopping times (taking values in $overline{mathbb{R}}_{+}$) such that $theta_1 leq theta_2.$

If $theta_1$ and $theta_2$ take values in $overline{mathbb{N}},$ then we can prove that $X_{theta_1},X_{theta_2} in L^1$ and using the optional stopping theorem that $E(X_{theta_2}|mathcal{F}_{theta_1}) geq X_{theta_1}$ a.s.

We suppose next that $(X_r)_{r in mathbb{R}_+}$ is right-continuous and that $theta_1$ and $theta_2$ take values in $overline{mathbb{R}}_+$. The following pictures are taken from stochastic processes, where various conditions imply the continuous optional stopping theorem.

Can we say that condition $C_3$ is the continuous version of $(P)$? What about the following property (following the construction of $(P)$):
$$exists c in mathbb{R}_+^*,forall(p,r) in (mathbb{R}_+)^2,E(|X_{p+r}-X_r||mathcal{F}_r) leq c (P’)$$
2

authorization – Is a consent screen in an OAuth 2.0 implementation optional

I’ve read through RFC 6749: https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc6749

The only mention of consent is in this bit:

The authorization server MUST implement CSRF protection for its
authorization endpoint and ensure that a malicious client cannot
obtain authorization without the awareness and explicit consent of
the resource owner.

The above does not (to me anyway) translate to: “Hey show a consent screen with requested scopes before responding with an authorisation”.

I’ve seen so many OAuth 2.0 implementations however where a consent screen is shown.

Question 1: As per the title really – is it actually needed?

Question 2: Is there an RFC that specifies what such a consent screen (if you are to implement one) should look like, including any required messaging and response if the user declines?

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optional – Bash function with dry-run and exec options

Am writing a bash function to run rsync, with possibility of using --dry-run option and --exec option. Need some criticism improvements and additional checks.

Might not make much sense for the user to specify both --dry-run and --exec. I would simply use –dry-run anyway.

Have started with the following setup.

filetr-archive ()
{
  # Process command line options
  shortopts="nel:s:d:"
  longopts="dry-run,exec,log:,source:,destin:"
  opts=$(getopt -o "$shortopts" -l "$longopts"  
        -n "$(basename $0)" -- "$@")
  if ( $? -eq 0 ); then
    eval "set -- ${opts}"
    while ( $# -gt 0 ); do
      case "$1" in
      -n|--dry-run)
        shift 1
        local -r dryrun=1
        ;;
      -e|--exec)
        shift 1
        local -r exec=1
        ;;
      -l|--log)
        local logfl=$2
        shift 2
        ;;
      -s|--source)
        local source=$2
        shift 2
        ;;
      -d|--destin)
        local destin=$2
        shift 2
        ;;
      --)
        shift;  break  ;;
      esac
    done
  else
    shorthelp=1 # getopt returned (and reported) an error.
  fi

  if (( filetr_dryrun == 1 )); then 

    echo "rsync -av --progress --log-file=$logfl --dry-run"
    echo "  $source $destin"
    rsync -av --progress --log-file=$logfl --dry-run $source $destin

  elif (( filetr_exec == 1 )); then
      
    # use rsync archive option -a (equivalent to -rlptgoD)
    echo "rsync -av --progress --log-file=$logfl $source $destin"
    # rsync -av --progress --log-file=$logfl $source $destin

  else

    echo "rsync -av --progress --log-file=$logfl $source $destin"
      
  fi