No, but within the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI), the other documents you could use instead of a passport are pretty limited:
US citizens can present a valid US passport; Passport card; Extended driver's license; Trusted Traveler Program Card (NEXUS, SENTRI or FAST); ID card of the US military when traveling by official order; US Merchant Mariner document when traveling in conjunction with an official maritime company; or Form I-872 American Indian Card or (if available) Enhanced Tribal Card.
(If you are under 16 or under 19 and travel with a youth group, the requirements are lower.)
Canada will provide you with a passport and a citizenship certificate such as a US driver's license and a birth certificate, but notes that it is possible to use documents that do not comply with EU requirements WHTI.
If you travel to Canada with such documents, you can return to the US because the US can not deny entry to a US citizen simply because they lack the right documents. There is a charge for people in this situation, but at the moment you can not expect anything more unpleasant than a late entry into the US along with a border guards scolding.
The passport costs $ 30, and advanced driver's licenses and status IDs cost $ 30 more than the unexpanded versions. If you do not want to pay for a passport, this is probably the best option.