virus – Return adresses’ processor’s system stack, exceptions’ processor’s system stack and in-method(procedure or function) jumps diapason system stack

virus – Return adresses’ processor’s system stack, exceptions’ processor’s system stack and in-method(procedure or function) jumps diapason system stack – Information Security Stack Exchange

Theory involving Processors

Suppose a processor has access to three levels of memory. Level 1 has an access time of 9 microseconds, level 2 has an access time of 23 microseconds and level 3 has an access time of 65 microseconds. Level 1 contains a subset of the bytes contained in level 2, and level 2 contains a subset of the bytes contained in level 3. It is estimated that 35 % of all requested bytes are contained in level 1, 68 % of all requested bytes are contained in level 2 and 100 % of all requested bytes are contained in level 3. If a byte to be accessed is in level 1, then the processor will directly access it from level 1. If a byte to be accessed is not in level 1 but in level 2, then the processor will directly access it from level 2. If a byte to be accessed is not in level 1 and not in level 2, then the processor will directly access it from level 3. For simplicity, we assume that the accessed bytes are not transferred between the memory levels. Moreover, we ignore the time that is required for the processor to determine whether a byte can be found in level 1, 2 or 3.

What is the average access time of this system?

Something to pick the brain.

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❕NEWS – Several new, dangerous exploits have been found affecting many Intel and AMD processors | Proxies-free

The exploits, varieties of the known Spectre exploit, have been found by researchers from two universities – University of Virginia and University of California San Diego. These weaknesses in the system affect all modern CPUs made by Intel and AMD that use micro-op caches. The researchers also fear that patching up these exploits will also badly affect performance of these microprocessors.

 

complexity – Efficiency of different Processors and GPUs

If you can break your operation down to assembly-level, it should be possible to estimate execution time.

Since each machines assembly-code can be easily translated to its respective machine instructions, you can simply “count” the number of clock-cycles a piece of software would take to run. This approach is sometimes used on simple processors running simple programs (e.g. micro-controllers), when precise timing is essential.

However keep in mind:

  1. Every processor architecture has it’s very unique way of handling high-level operations. This means the amount of work, required to “estimate” the runtime of your high-level code on different machines would be insane.

  2. That modern computing systems usually run your application on top of an OS. This additional layer of indirection makes it impossible to “guess” when your code will be executed and thus how quickly it will finish.

TL;DR No, you probably won’t be able to know, when your software will be finished rendering something without testing it.

How is Apple legally allowed to run x86 compiled binaries on their M1 processors, when Intel and AMD have exlusive rights to the instruction set?

I’m no legal expert, but I was under the impression that Intel and AMD had exlusive rights to produce CPUs capable of natively executing x86 binaries. So even if Apple wanted to make a traditional x86 CPU, they would not be allowed without signing some deal with AMD or Intel (or perhaps both).

Yet clearly, Apple is now selling hardware that is capable of running these binaries using their software translation layer. From one perspective, it is fully within Apple’s rights to sell an ARM processor, and allow the user to emulate x86 on it. From another perspective, Apple is selling a product packaged with an x86 emulator tightly integrated with the operating system and hardware, essentially circumventing the intent of the IP law.

Is Apple facing any legal challenges from AMD or Intel that their IP, the ability to sell hardware capable of executing x86 binaries, is being infringed upon?

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