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air travel – Flying within the United States, Passport required?

Beginning October 10, 2018 A driver’s license from a State that does not meet “Real ID” requirements is not sufficient to fly between destinations in the US.

Before you fly, check your drivers’ license. “REAL ID”-compliant driver’s licenses are indicated by the presence of a star:

REAL-ID compliant driver's license

If your ID does not have this star:

1.Check your state’s status: You can check if your state is REAL ID compliant at Beginning January 22, 2018, travelers from non-compliant states will not be able to use their driver’s licenses or state IDs at TSA checkpoints, unless the state received an extension to comply. Source (PDF)

Currently (November 2017) only about half of US States have compliant licenses. There are a few other acceptable options but for most people a Passport is the most likely choice, and the Passport card being the most cost effective for domestic travel only.

Beginning October 1, 2020, even if your State is compliant, your driver’s license needs to be compliant (you might need to renew it). Be sure to ask specifically for the REAL-ID compliant ID.

Before your trip to the DMV, you’ll need to gather a few documents to prove your identity and residence in your state. Check your state’s DMV Website for more information.

The list of compliant States is can be viewed at

Currently all States and Territories are either compliant or have an extension, except American Samoa. Those extensions expire October 10, 2018, at which point your driver’s license may not be sufficient

online – How does “internet connection required” protect from piracy on mobile phones?

I don’t know how the DRM of this particular game works, because I do not work at Nintendo. But a common reason why DRM requires an always-on internet connection is because not every copy of the game is the same. Everyone who buys the game gets a copy with a different license key. While the player is playing the game, the license key is sent to the server. When a second player comes online with the exact same license key, then one of them is obviously playing a copy they didn’t buy.

When the game is bought through a store platform which assigns unique IDs to users or devices, you can also use an internet connection to verify purchase. The game sends the user/device ID to the server, and the server verifies that this user/device has actually bought that game.

As with every DRM scheme, this system is not bulletproof. No DRM scheme is bulletproof. When a game runs on the user’s hardware, it’s in the hands of the enemy. A determined hacker can find out where the game stores the license key and how to replace it with a different one. Or alternatively change the game executable so it will run without comparing the license key. But that takes some time to figure out. Most games make their most revenue during the first weeks after release. So the idea is not to deter the software pirates forever, but only until the launch weeks are over.

android – How does “internet connection required” protect from piracy?

enter image description here

The above scene actually happened, and was frustrating.

Here is my understanding so far:

  • Nintendo released Mario Run on the Android Play Store,
  • Mobile phone games (Android, iOS) are a relatively new market for Nintendo,
  • 90% of Mario Run consists of offline levels, which wouldn’t normally require any network,
  • When Nintendo produces the hardware for their games (Wii, Switch, etc) they are able to embed some “strong” anti-piracy (anti-copy) features,
  • When Nintendo can’t control the hardware (Android, iOS), they achieve anti-piracy by requiring an internet connection when launching the game and before each level.

My question is: how can Nintendo achieve to “obfuscate” the app enough to decrease the likelihood of piracy, where thousands of players would play the full game without purchasing? Is it extremely difficult for a hacker to record the successive states (memory snapshots) of the game when playing the full version, and recombine them in a pirate app that would skip the network traffic?

validation – How indicate conditional required field in editable table?

In a form indicating which fields are required are often indicated by an asterisk (*). We have an editable table and I indicate a required column with aesthetics in the title of the column.

The problem appears when initially no columns are required. But if the user fills one of the fields in the row, the next field in this row becomes mandatory and will not pass validation when the user will save the form. How to help the user and identify conditionally required fields?

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8 – How add conditional required field

So, if dont want to use conditional_fields module and only conditional fields core
You can do it, but required field have sometime a little bug.

In the issue someone take some code from conditional_fields that fix this issue, and use it.


(function ($, Drupal) {

// Fix core's required handling.
$(document).bind('state:required', function (e) {
  if (e.trigger) {
    var fields = $('input, select, textarea, fieldset');
    fields.each(function() {
      var label = 'label' + ( ? '(for=' + + ')' : '');
      var $field_labels = $(;
      var $fieldset_legends = $('legend span.fieldset-legend');
      var $labels = $field_labels.add($fieldset_legends);
      if (e.value) {
        $(this).attr({ required: 'required', 'aria-required': 'aria-required' });
        $labels.each(function() {
          $(this).addClass('js-form-required form-required');
      } else {
        $(this).removeAttr('required aria-required');
        $labels.each(function() {
          $(this).removeClass('js-form-required form-required');

})(jQuery, Drupal);

In your_module.module in a form alter add:

$form('#attached')('library')() = 'your_module/conditional_fields';

$form('field_b')('#states') = (
      'visible' => (
        ':input(name="field_a")' => ('!value' => '_none')
      'required' => (
        ':input(name="field_a")' => ('!value' => '_none'),

Don’t forget add the js code in your_module.libraries.yml file

Adding JS to a Drupal module

With our above code it worked!.

Why is user and CA certificate required for IKEv2 RSA VPN?

It should work similarly as to going to a random HTTPS website, where the supplied certificate is backed by a CA, and based on which a secure connection is made. Then authentication follows over the secure connection.

So why am I required to supply both user and CA certificates. In other words, why is it not merely an option?

Edit: now that I look at it, it seems that no user nor password can be supplied either, so the client authentication happens based on the user certificate. Only for PPTP a password is required (which is not a secure protocol anyway). So the question becomes: why have they chosen to support only IKEv2 with user certificates and not passwords. It can not be for security reasons since PPTP is supported.

cpu usage – How do I calculate how much CPU, RAM, energy is required to run a specific Python program?

How do I determine how much energy, CPU and RAM are being used to run to run a specific Python program?

How do I determine how much energy, CPU and RAM are being used to run a Python program?

Suppose we want to find out how much energy, CPU and RAM are being used in Python to find out the factorial of a positive integer. I used the code below but it is not working.


from __future__ import print_function
import psutil

for i in range(1,n+1):
print fact

print('CPU  % used:', psutil.cpu_percent())
print('physical memory  % used:', psutil.virtual_memory())  # physical memory usage
print('memory % used:', psutil.virtual_memory()(2))

vpn – CA certificate always required in OpenVPN Ubuntu 20.04

I installed Ubuntu 20.04 two weeks ago and able to set up my VPN connection smoothly. What I mean about smoothly is by providing the gateway only, I was able to add a VPN connection, and every time I connect into it, a window will pop-up asking for my credential and it’s all good.

And the last night I reinstalled the OS (made some disk adjustment) and I can no longer add a VPN connection. It is already requiring me to provide a CA certificate.

The Add button is disabled unless I provide a CA certificate which I don't have

I made some research and most of it talks about network-manager or GNOME issues. But where my confusion/frustration is taking-off is the fact that it was working the last time. Take note that this is a fresh installed OS.

Am I missing something?