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linux – On a single user laptop does it make sense to have a separte password for root and the user?

It’s all about your own personal risk tolerance and your threat model. In short, you are worried about someone who is physically in possession of your laptop and has guessed your user password, and you want to keep them from having full admin rights. I’m having a hard time coming up with a scenario where that may actually happen, so I can’t help but think that you are overthinking this. Moreover, for most personal computers, the user account is typically more critical than admin access;

Then again, remembering two passwords isn’t much harder than memorizing one, so go for it if you want. Just make sure you have a way to copy your data off the machine without needing admin credentials – you’ll want to do that if you ever forget your admin credentials and need to reinstall.

Still, I might suggest an alternate solution:

Use a strong password and don’t tell it to anyone

root access – Is it possible to take pictures from both front and rear camera at the same time (like bothie)

There are apps that can do this but they are not exactly Bothie. The app allows the user to first take a picture from rear camera and then from the front camera (but not simultaneously). Nokia first came up with this idea in 2017.
More about Bothie

I am just wondering if this is a hardware feature or software. I can handle the software issue(with root) i think. And if this is not possible then can you please explain why and how it works?

Thanks a ton in advance : )

Can’t find the correct root for this equation

So I have this expression

    Expr= (5.70129*10^14 f^2 (7.97764*10^8 + 4 f^2 (Pi)^2) + 
   6198.06 (-6.34731*10^8 + 4 f^2 (Pi)^2)^2 (7.97764*10^8 + 
      4 f^2 (Pi)^2) + 
   13149.6 (6.34731*10^8 + 4 f^2 (Pi)^2) (3.14945*10^10 f^2 + 
      0.648892 (-7.97764*10^8 + 
         4 f^2 (Pi)^2)^2))/((3.14945*10^10 f^2 + 
     0.648892 (-7.97764*10^8 + 4 f^2 (Pi)^2)^2) (2.50582*10^10 f^2 + 
     0.272416 (-6.34731*10^8 + 4 f^2 (Pi)^2)^2))

I want to solve


However when I do


aux = Quiet(FindRoot(Eqn, {f, 3000}));
result = f /. aux((1))

I obtain result=42013.8 instead of a value around 3000 or 4000 (the correct answer).

What am I doing wrong?

Bash/zsh function that cd to the root of git tree

I’d like to get a review for the function, that cd into the git tree root, or does nothing if we are outside of the repository

# cd to the root of the current git directory
# If $PWD is submodule, will cd to the root of the top ancestor
# It requires to stay in the current directory, if the root is . or unknown,
# and use cd only once, to have a way to do `cd -`
function cg {
  git_root() {
    local super_root
    local top
    top="$(git rev-parse --show-cdup)"
    super_root="$(git rev-parse --show-superproject-working-tree)"
    if (( "$super_root" )); then
      printf '%s' "$top../"
      ( cd "$top../" && git_root || return )
    printf '%s' "$top"
  local git_root
  ( "x${git_root}" != "x./" ) && cd "$(git_root)" && return || return 0
} – WP Htaccess file in root folder seem to overwrite the htaccess rules in Sub Directory folder

I’ll like to seek your help on htaccess.

I have WP installed at the root folder. eg: I have the 2nd WP installed in the sub directory folder “hello”. eg: >>

Problem: Unable to access the subpages of the 2nd WP site. I will hit 404. However, when I try to connect to it gets redirected to the first website in the root folder which is not what I want.

I’ve checked my htaccess file and I am not sure what is going wrong. It looks like the root folder htaccess supersede the sub directory folder. Any advice? Thanks!

Root Htaccess File

php_flag output_buffering on
php_value expose_php off
# BEGIN WordPress
# The directives (lines) between `BEGIN WordPress` and `END WordPress` are
# dynamically generated, and should only be modified via WordPress filters.
# Any changes to the directives between these markers will be overwritten.
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule ^index.php$ - (L)
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php (L)
RewriteEngine Off
# END WordPress

Here is the Sub Directory Htaccess file

<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /hello/
RewriteRule ^index.php$ – (L)
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /hello/index.php (L)

drush – Drupal root not found. Pass –root or a @siteAlias in order to see Drupal-specific commands

I have multiple sites inside the same htdocs directory. In one, I removed all the folders except vendor under Web. Now drush will not work (it worked before I moved the folders). But now, it cannot find the database, which is correctly defined in web/sites/default/settings.php

/srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal # ./drush status
 PHP binary    : /usr/bin/php
 PHP config    : /srv/www/php.ini
 PHP OS        : Linux
 Drush script  : /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/drush/drush/drush
 Drush version : 10.3.6
 Drush temp    : /tmp
 Drush configs : /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/drush/drush/drush.yml
 Drupal root   : /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal

I am running Drupal 9.0.8 and drush 10.3.6 (in /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal). I have removed drush using composer (2.0.3) and reinstalled it (recreating vendor in the process).

/srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal # ./drush -vvv cr
 (preflight) Config paths: /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/drush/drush/drush.yml
 (preflight) Alias paths: /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/drush/sites,/srv/www/htdocs/jar/drush/sites
 (preflight) Commandfile search paths: /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/drush/drush/src
 (debug) Starting bootstrap to site (0.04 sec, 8.17 MB)

In BootstrapHook.php line 32:
  Bootstrap failed. Run your command with -vvv for more information.
Exception trace:
  at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/drush/drush/src/Boot/BootstrapHook.php:32
 DrushBootBootstrapHook->initialize() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/consolidation/annotated-command/src/Hooks/Dispatchers/InitializeHookDispatcher.php:44
 ConsolidationAnnotatedCommandHooksDispatchersInitializeHookDispatcher->doInitializeHook() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/consolidation/annotated-command/src/Hooks/Dispatchers/InitializeHookDispatcher.php:36
 ConsolidationAnnotatedCommandHooksDispatchersInitializeHookDispatcher->callInitializeHook() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/consolidation/annotated-command/src/Hooks/Dispatchers/InitializeHookDispatcher.php:29
 ConsolidationAnnotatedCommandHooksDispatchersInitializeHookDispatcher->initialize() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/consolidation/annotated-command/src/CommandProcessor.php:145
 ConsolidationAnnotatedCommandCommandProcessor->initializeHook() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/consolidation/annotated-command/src/AnnotatedCommand.php:296
 ConsolidationAnnotatedCommandAnnotatedCommand->initialize() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/symfony/console/Command/Command.php:221
 SymfonyComponentConsoleCommandCommand->run() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/symfony/console/Application.php:1018
 SymfonyComponentConsoleApplication->doRunCommand() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/symfony/console/Application.php:271
 SymfonyComponentConsoleApplication->doRun() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/symfony/console/Application.php:147
 SymfonyComponentConsoleApplication->run() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/drush/drush/src/Runtime/Runtime.php:118
 DrushRuntimeRuntime->doRun() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/drush/drush/src/Runtime/Runtime.php:49
 DrushRuntimeRuntime->run() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/drush/drush/drush.php:72
 require() at /srv/www/htdocs/jar/drupal/vendor/drush/drush/drush:4

I looked at all the above suggestions, but am stuck. Drush works perfectly on my other 5 sites…

exploit – Is there a website that provides details and root cause of data breaches reported in the media?

The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse keeps a comprehensive Chronology of Data Breaches, and includes Type of Breach and Type of Business.


It gives you the threat vector (type) but does not include technical details.

I often check Google to research root cause technical details to understand the nature of a big hack, and the vulnerability. Sometimes it’s easy to track down good technical articles on the causes of the breach. Other times there does seem to be much disclosure, as the other answer suggests. No one wants to really say what vulnerability they left unprotected.

How To Calculate Merkle Root?

I found this example:

Current merkle hash list:

Current merkle hash list:

I have tried to calculate the hash using PHP:

$v=hash('sha256', hash('sha256',$tx1.$tx2) );

But I got:

What is wrong?