Regarding dark mode:
The researchers found significant thinning of this membrane when participants read text presented in light mode and significant thickening when reading text presented in dark mode. The thinning was more pronounced in participants who already had myopia.
This result seems to suggest that, even though performance in light mode may be better in the short term, there may be a long-term cost associated with it.
However, it may also be borrowed from aviation guidelines. In the following post, there is a discussion regarding white displays affecting night vision.
The FAA guidelines also has a brief section regarding luminance (3.2.3):
Information should be readable over a wide range of ambient illumination under all foreseeable conditions relative to the operating environment.
It’s also hard to say the displays are blue. It might be because of the angle of the photo and the composition of the display itself. There are photos where the interface appears dark grey / black. Additionally, we also don’t know if the interface has other contrast settings to perform in different light environments.