What is the exact functionality of Google Play Services and Google Services Framework (gapps)?

Is there any official or unofficial description of the exact features of Google Play Services and Google Services Framework (gapps), other than information about the features of the Play Store account?

In my understanding, it at least includes:

  • GPS location
  • Ads, tracking and statistics
  • GCM (Google Cloud Messaging for push notifications)
  • Everything about managing Google Accounts, services, and Google user profile data.
  • apparently some ready-made models for machine learning, speech recognition, TTS, keyboard gesture input.

What else?

The question came up after I noticed that, for example, the size of the Google Podcasts app is only about 300 KB and does not work without gapps.

All the combined sizes of Google Services Framework + Google Play services are over 700MB – enough for an entire operating system. What exactly does this code do?

GUI design – Are there any services that allow you to easily upgrade or downgrade?

I've noticed that upgrading is easy on many different types of products and services offering different subscriptions. A downgrade is somewhat discreet. In most cases, you would need to contact support to downgrade or cancel your plan.

Is this a business decision? But is there any other negative impact if we allow users to easily downgrade to a plan? Or cancel a plan less hidden?

And this may be unusual – but what if a user chooses to upgrade / downgrade / upgrade again within, say, an hour? Will this generally lead to billing issues?

Defense – Ensure that all network services on a device use strong TLS cipher suites

(This is hypothetical, but based on a real problem I had)


I'm developing an (embedded) device that contains some exposed network services. I am responsible for security and do not develop these services. Therefore, I do not know how they are structured.

I'm doing some testing (sending targeted client hello messages to the device services with certain cipher suites) and find that some of these services are accepting weak TLS ciphersuites.


I now have the job of fixing this issue, preferably by fixing the problem back in the stack as much as possible (for example, I would prefer not having to look at the code / configuration of each application and would like it instead at the fix system level).


  1. I know that OpenSSL is the only crypto library / crypto program used on the system.

Now some questions:

  1. What options do I have to prevent network services from allowing weak TLS encryptions? (eg, change OpenSSL itself, change OpenSSL configuration files, change operating system configuration, etc.)

  2. Which options are reasonably "safe"? e.g. I assume I could change the OpenSSL code and remove, recompile, and integrate any mention of these cipher suites. This would prevent applications from sending the suites (even if they ask for it). However, this seems to be a dangerous solution and difficult to sustain in the long term.

  3. Is that even possible or do I have to look at every service?

symfony services – Fatal PHP error while trying to execute drush

If you try to execute drush, no output is output. It just fails. The error logs show how this fatal error is caused:

Fatal PHP error: The default value for parameters with a class type hint can only be NULL in /home/site/vendor/symfony/var-dumper/Dumper/CliDumper.php on line 67

This is a Drupal instance created by the composer. The Drupal website itself is loading and working properly. Only Drush triggers this error.

It works locally in a VM and is stopped after switching to another environment with the same PHP version.

Drush Version: 9.7.1

Drupal version: 8.7.6

PHP version: 7.2

Operating system: Linux / Centos

amazon web services – To ensure that the application is installed on a particular ec2 instance each time a new instance is created

If you provide a Spot ec2 instance, it can be stopped at any time and a new instance can be created. How can I ensure that the new instance contains all the configuration and application I have installed? Do I need to use other aws services to ensure this?

Data – How to ensure that the services are used by a customer

In this case, the date of origin of the records from the database can be a hint
The newer the entry, the higher the probability that it is current. There may also be an entry indicating the frequency of use of the services, or whether they have generally been used by someone.

Often, people sign up without being consumers at the same time. It is worthwhile to determine the value of this factor

Sending e-mails can also be a possibility in addition to offering premium payments

You have thought about qualitative research?

You will get an initial insight and an analysis of the topics, which you can then confirm quantitatively

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amazon web services – Authentication error when creating a new environment through Cloudrea Director: AWS could not validate the specified credentials

I've followed the following Cloudera documentation: Getting Started with Amazon Web Services (AWS)

In this step: When adding an Altus Director environment to AWS (link below), an authentication problem occurs.

Screenshot to add a new Env: Add a new Env via Coluera Director

Problem: Problem with invalid credentials

But I can connect via ssh with the user name: "centos" and my pem file with ec2 cluster. (SSH screenshot attached)
SSH login to the cluster

Screenshot of the running cluster: Information about the running cluster

My work on this topic:



  • This seems mainly due to time-synchronization problems in the cluster. Because credentials are time-stamped when sending credentials from the client side to the cluster, and authentication fails if there are major differences.
    And I also took this step, that the time is in sync (by installing ntp on the cluster)
    The time is synchronized: The cluster time is synchronized
    I also stopped and stopped the EC2 cluster dubbing.

  • I also specified the correct EC2 region while creating a new ENV, i.

amazon web services – Secure storage of AWS credentials on a local server

How best to store AWS IAM credentials on a physical / virtual server for the services running in them to access them?

This is a problem that has long been fixed for EC2 instances through instance profiles, but I do not know how it behaves for non-EC2 servers (ie a rented box in a data center, a RaspberryPi at home, etc .).

Note: I'm not talking about a development environment on a personal desktop or laptop. There are several solutions for this scenario.

I'd like to avoid having long-lived access key ID and secret access key pairs in plain text on the hard drive, if possible. Many tools and systems that require access to AWS services must include either access keys and key ID pairs in configuration files or the default environment variables.

One approach I consider is to use the AWS System Manager Agent (which is already included) to periodically retrieve the keys from the AWS Secret Manager or the parameter store. The agent itself uses a custom IAM role when executing commands and invoking automation workflows on the host. Therefore, I should be able to add additional IAM policies as needed to access parameter memory or other AWS services.

Ask yourself if there are good practices for this. I do not want to reinvent the wheel if this is a solved problem or if I find a overcooked and complex custom solution.