Was software ever freeware? – Software Engineering Stack Exchange

I think I read, or saw somewhere that software used to be freeware, and Bill Gates went to the Supreme Court of the US to have it commercialized.

I also found out today that Bill Gates bought MS-DOS from a man called Gary Kildall for U$50,000, which tells me that at that point software was already an expensive product (U$50,000 then would translate to about $200,000 taking into account the value of the dollar depreciated by inflation).

So what was the deal with software before it was a commercial product?

probability – Defective products – Mathematics Stack Exchange

A company sends 30% of its product to Client A and 70% to Client B. Client A reports that 5% of the products it received are defective, whereas Client B reports that 4% of products received are defective. The defective products are returned back to the company.

What is the probability of a returned defective product coming from Client B?





None of the above.

The setting the same as in last question.

What is the probability that a product is sent to Client A and is defective?





None of the above.

Mersenne primes before computers – Mathematics Stack Exchange

On the Wikipedia page there is an ordered list of Mersenne primes and the dates they were discovered. The largest such primes and most recent discoveries were made with the help computers. But the largest Mersenne prime discovered without computer aid is $2^{127}-1$ by $acute{text{E}}text{douard Lucas}$ in 1876, which has more than $38$ digits.

How can one prove that such a large number is prime without the help of a computer?

Sharepoint Display Template – SharePoint Stack Exchange

I created a display template in SharePoint server 2019. But I don’t see the template in the template list.
My site collection is SharePoint publishing feature enabled. I observed one thing, after the template creation there should be a javascript file with same name of the template, but there is no javascript file created with the same name. Need help.
Thank you in advance.

Farook Golam

vulnerability management 101 – Information Security Stack Exchange

Looking at a typical vulnerability scan report from Nessus or Qualys most people are terrified, lost, and basically with more questions than answers. For example, how on earth am I going to deal with all these findings? From what I was taught, a vulnerability management process can be broken down into 4 steps (not mentioning its close relation to patch, change, risk management):

  1. Identifying vulnerabilities
  2. Evaluating vulnerabilities
  3. Treating vulnerabilities
  4. Reporting vulnerabilities

Vulnerability scanner scoring/risk rating and how does it match your org.

While the scanner provides its own risk ratings and scores such as CVSS, and I guess these are somehow helpful in telling org’s which vulns require immediate attention, but do they really reflect the true risk? I mean a vulnerability can depend on some other factors beyond the mentioned scores and vulnerability scanners do not have the intelligence to tell whether the finding is a true or false positive (to a certain extent, e.g. issues with backported patches), whether there are any security controls that would reduce the likelihood and/or impact of this vulnerability being exploited, how would it impact confidentiality, integrity and availability of the exploited system, data, how would it impact your business, what your org’s risk management strategy is and many others.

So I guess that vulnerability scanners, like any other security-related software, are not perfect, but still, they provide us with a large amount of information (sometimes valid, sometimes not) and here’s where we as human beings take over to produce something more meaningful that will aim to increase an org’s security posture and lower its risk exposure. I guess that’s step 2 in the process, vulnerability evaluations.

While exploring the topic, I hear voices like “your vulnerability management needs to be risk-driven, so that you make informed decisions” or “your vulnerability management needs to be threat-intelligence-driven, to learn and predict how an adversary might strike”.

How to evaluate, prioritize, remediate?

So what I’m looking for is maybe not a recipe but direction or guidance from experienced members on how to:

  • not waste unnecessary time on findings, because they are false positives anyway (e.g. backports). Should the first step be verification whether it’s a false positive or not?

  • select the correct ones to address first (I’m looking here for suggestions on whether vulnerabilities should be first grouped based on their nature, e.g. injection vulnerabilities or any other criteria. What I know, that it’s generally recommended to export or filter scanning results by plugin ID instead of IP’s so that we will have only a few hundred vulnerability groups that will have x amount of systems in those groups). I’m aware of the CVSS scoring system, so could or perhaps should I use it to conduct a more accurate assessment based on my org/environment?).

  • I really would want to avoid a situation where I’m only the guy that bothers others with calls and emails asking whether given vuln’s have been addressed but would rather want to make an impact on the security posture of the organization where I’m currently working. Other than that, I could possibly go through the list of all the findings and provide information in form of advisories on how to verify and patch a given vulnerability, but in some cases my ability is limited I guess, meaning I don’t know all the details about a given system, so just providing a recommendation to upgrade to the latest PHP version where a number of functions were deprecated is not going to help the concerned system owners.

PS. If there are any books one could recommend, I would greatly appreciate it !

Copyright on game art – Game Development Stack Exchange

So I was checking some assets on asset store (2d games pixel-art mostly) and got a question

These two as example:



they look like many textures you see in any other 2d game, and doesn’t look very unique – I seen similar textures in many games, and I doubt devs/companies bought exactly those texture packs, probably artists just created their own arts that look similar, or maybe sometimes, for simpler textures like sand or water, exactly like existing textures in these or some other packs.

So the question is – how copyright works on art? Can I read about it somewhere, or maybe someone can just post a simple version of explanation? Is there minimal size on what can be copyrighted? Can I copyright a pixel? Or 16×16 pixels with, say 16 colors, not that much combinations, can I copyright all possible “arts”? If my game will accidentally have some character or texture that already exist in the world – how it should be treated – at what stage or percent it’s ok and at what it’s not?

So far I decided to google “Can I copyright a pixel” and looking at links (like this one https://steamcommunity.com/app/342280/discussions/0/371919771747864271/), but who know, maybe I can get something more useful here.

Photo Competition 2021-03-15: Reflections – Photography Stack Exchange


The theme of this contest is simple: photos where mirrors, windows, water, or other reflective surfaces were used to get reflections.

This theme was suggested by Eric S.

Voting Rules

  • Vote up as many images as you like
  • Please, up votes only! Do NOT vote down your competitors! If you don’t like an image, don’t vote
  • Voting closes on March 15, 2021 at 12:00 AM UTC. The winner will be chosen based on votes at that time

Submission Rules

  1. One photo submission per answer. Up to three (3) entries allowed.
  2. Post only photos taken by yourself or the person with you.
  3. All entries should include a line of text with the location, subject, and date.
  4. The submitted image must conform to this site’s content license, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 (CC BY-SA 4.0) with attribution required.
  5. Do not use this as a forum for photo critique. Use chat instead, or ask a new question about your image.

Next Contest

  • Suggest a theme for the next contest. Leave a single comment below in the format,

    Theme: <one sentence description>

  • Upvote the comment(s) with the theme you would like to see next time.

Good luck!

Cannot declare function twice – WordPress Development Stack Exchange

I have two hooks that i am using in the code snippets plugin:


    add_filter( 'woocommerce_package_rates', 'businessbloomer_hide_free_shipping_for_shipping_class', 10, 2 );
    function businessbloomer_hide_free_shipping_for_shipping_class( $rates, $package ) {
     $shipping_class_target = '1173'; // This is Deluxe Tables shipping class ID 
       $in_cart = false;
       foreach ( WC()->cart->get_cart_contents() as $key => $values ) {
          if ( $values( 'data' )->get_shipping_class_id() == $shipping_class_target ) {
             $in_cart = true;
       if ( $in_cart ) {
          unset( $rates('local_pickup:45') ); // This is Local Pick up shipping method with ID 
       return $rates;
    add_filter( 'woocommerce_package_rates', 'businessbloomer_hide_free_shipping_for_shipping_class', 10, 2 );
    function businessbloomer_hide_free_shipping_for_shipping_class( $rates, $package ) {
       $shipping_class_target = '1750'; // This is Stag & Doe shipping class ID 
       $in_cart = false;
       foreach ( WC()->cart->get_cart_contents() as $key => $values ) {
          if ( $values( 'data' )->get_shipping_class_id() == $shipping_class_target ) {
             $in_cart = true;
       if ( $in_cart ) {
          unset( $rates('WB_Custom_WooCommerce_Shipping_Method52') ); // This is Delivery shipping method with ID 
       return $rates;

If only one is activated at a time it works! But it says I cannot declare the function twice, so how do I combine these two? I have tried so many variations and nothing is working. Please help!