What is the standard order process workflow in Magento 1?

I’m trying to understand the order process in Magento 1.7. The background is: I’m extracting the payment (and later the complete checkout) from Magento to another system, but the order processing should take place in Magento. So, I need to understand, at what places in the process I can / need to define interfaces to my other application.

I expected to find quite quickly a workflow diagram for the order process, including also the payment. But could not find anything so far, what would be more or less complete and contain payment.

What is the order process workflow (only for/with the Magento standard statuses), including the payment, in Magento 1?

c# – Custom actions (.Net Standard 2.1) not working with Visual Studio Installer Projects for my Net Core 3.1 Application

I’m trying to use visual studio installer projects to make an installer for my .Net core 3.1 project. I’ve followed the guidance below for how to use installer projects with net core:

Visual Studio Installer Projects

I want the installer to perform a custom action on commit, so I created a .Net Standard 2.1 class library project and overrode this method:

public partial class UpdateIniFile : Installer   {
    public override void Commit(IDictionary savedState) {

As discussed in the article above, for a net core application, you publish the application then select ‘Publish Items’ for the project output group in the installer project.

When I’ve added custom actions to framework based projects in the past, I’d add the custom actions project as a primary output into the installer project then reference it in the custom actions screen of the installer project.

This however doesn’t seem to work for the current set of projects when I add the custom actions project to the installer project as a primary output. If I test the installer it creates, when the custom action runs I get this error:

Error 1001: Unable to get installer types in C:……IniFileUpdaterAction.dll assembly -> Unable to load one or more of the requested types

I’ve tried the other way round… attempting to publish the custom actions project and then adding it to the installer project as a ‘Publish Items’, but on attempting to publish the custom actions project I get this:

Publish has encountered an error. We were unable to determine the cause of the error

I saw in one response to the post linked below that there can be issues running custom actions when using the publish items output type, but I wondered, if this is the issue if there have been any workarounds, and if this is not the case, is there something else I’ve missed or am I going about adding the custom action in the wrong way.

How to package .NET Core 3 in Visual Studio Installer Project

Thanks very much in advance!

Standard for verifying certificates that signed code

When one verifies a certificate that came alongside a signature for some sort of code, is there a standard that specifies what shall be verified?

For example, if I’m to verify a certificate that came alongside a SSL response from a server, I can follow RFC-6125. For emails, there is RFC-5750.

So I was wondering if there is a standard defined practice for code certificates. I understand that typically it won’t be much except validating the date, certification path and key usage, but I’d rather refer to a standard.

wp query – Array merge for both custom post type and standard post not displaying or working

To give some background info, I am trying to output a custom post type ‘project’ that displays 5 featured image posts in a grid on my front-page. Within this grid I would also like to add a recent standard post item as one of the grid items(I would be controlling the styling of grid via css).

Nothing seems to be displaying at all, but I can see nothing but two block outlines: when I hover over each, they both are from my standard posts, but only display their link in the left hand corner of the screen. Nothing is being displaying from my standard posts or the images from my custom post type of ‘project’.

FYI: I have set the theme support for thumbnail.

Is there something wrong with my code?

This is what I have so far on my front-page, but its not displaying them:

<div class="content lg-grid">
    global $wp_query;
    $args = array_merge($wp_query->query, array(
        'project'   => array(
            'posts_per_page' => 5,
            'post_type' => 'project'
        'post' => array(
            'posts_per_page' => 1,
            'category' => 'art'

    while (have_posts()) : the_post();
        <div class="project-item">
            <a href="<?php the_permalink(); ?>">
                <img src="https://wordpress.stackexchange.com/<?php the_post_thumbnail(); ?>" />
                <h5 class="title"><?php the_title(); ?></h5>
    <?php endwhile; ?>

Adding a standard post within a custom post type of posts

I have created a custom post type of images on the front-page as a css grid. These images themselves will link to a project page.

I wanted to know, how can I add a standard post inside the loop of a custom post type that will be added within the grid?

I have the loop like so to query the custom post type of images:

    $projectPT = new WP_Query(array(
        'posts_per_page' => 5,
        'post_type' => 'projects'

    while ($projectPT->have_posts()) {
      $projectPT->the_post(); ?>
        <div class="project-item">
         <a href="<?php the_permalink(); ?>">
            <img src="https://wordpress.stackexchange.com/<?php the_post_thumbnail(); ?>" />
            <h5 class="title"><?php the_title(); ?></h5>
<?php } ?>

Here is the loop for the standard post I would like to add inside the first loop of the grid items:

        $getBlogs = new WP_Query(array(
            'posts_per_page'    => 1,
            'category_name' => 'art'

        while ($getBlogs->have_posts()) {

            <div class="recent-post">
                <h2 class="title"><a href="<?php the_permalink(); ?>"><?php the_title(); ?></a></h2>
                <!-- post meta -->
                <div class="post-meta">
                        <span><?php the_author(); ?></span>
                        <span><?php the_time('F j, Y'); ?></span>

                <!-- the content -->
                <div class="the-excerpt">
                    <?php echo the_excerpt(); ?>

        <?php }

How can I go about this?

calculus and analysis – Having difficulty with what seems like a standard integral

I am fairly sure the integral I am trying to evaluate has an analytical solution and I am not used to Mathematica not finding the answer relatively easily, I have tried out a few tricks and transformations but doesn’t seem to evaluate it.

Here is the integral:

$$ F(x,y,z)=int_{r=0}^{r=R} int_{phi=0}^{phi=2pi}dr dphi left(frac{r}{sqrt{(z-delta)^2+(x-r cos(phi))^2+(y-r sin(phi))^2}}right)-left(frac{r}{sqrt{(z+delta)^2+(x-r cos(phi))^2+(y-r sin(phi))^2}}right)$$

Here is the code I use for it with assumptions clarified on these parameters (everything is real)

Integrate( r/Sqrt((z - (Delta))^2 + (x - r Cos((Phi)))^2 + (y - 
 r Sin((Phi)))^2) - r/  Sqrt((z + (Delta))^2 + (x - r Cos((Phi)))^2 + (y - 
 r Sin((Phi)))^2), {r, 0, R}, {(Phi), 0, 2 (Pi)})

I tried the integration with the following assumptions:

$ {x,y,z,R,delta} in Re $ and $ R>0,delta >0$.

Not sure if this is truly uncomputable or I am missing a simple transformation. Thank you for your suggestions!

reference request – Twisted affine Lie algebras, Lie bracket and normalized standard invariant form

I am reading the book: Infinite-Dimensional Lie Algebras (Kac) and the article: Affine Lie algebras and the Virasoro algebras I (Wakimoto). The formulas they wrote for the Lie bracket $(,)$, normalized standard invariant form $(|)$ of twisted affine Lie algebras of type $X_N^{(r)}$ are contradicted to each other:

Contradiction1: In the book, page 139, the bracket given by
enter image description here

but in the article, page 381, it is given by
enter image description here

Here $X(j)$ means $t^j otimes X$ and $c_s=rK/m$ (see the article to verify it). They are totally different.

Contradiction2: In the book, page 139, if the normalized standard invariant form is defined by
enter image description here

then it contradict to the Lie bracket in the same page,

enter image description here

$(d’| (t^i otimes x, t^j otimes y)) ne ((d’,t^i otimes x)| t^j otimes y)$

So, If are there anyone knows the right formulas for the Lie bracket and normalized standard invariant form for twisted affine Lie algebras mentioned in the Theorem 8.7 in the book of Kac?

8 – Standard way of filling webform fields with session or cookie values

Is there a standard way of filling Webform (hidden) fields with session variables and cookies?

In previous versions of Webform (4.x?), I’ve read that some placeholders could be used for setting the default value the one in a cookie or session variable, but this functionality was apparently removed (maybe when Webform switched to use the more standard Token module?)

I’m imagining two ways of doing this, but all of them may require custom code:

  • Implementing a custom component that acts like a hidden field but that gets its value from a specific cookie/session variable of choice.
  • Exposing cookies & session variables as tokens, and then use default Webform default value mechanism with tokens. Ideally, I would like the form editors to be able to choose any cookie/session variable they want, so I’m not sure this can be done that way.

ra.rings and algebras – Is the standard proof that Euclidean Domains are PIDs false?

In the books “Modern Algebra and it’s Applications” and “A First Course in Abstract Algebra”, the same proof that Euclidean Domains are PIDs is given. I will state it below (ver Batum from “A First Course in Abstract Algebra”) for convenience:

Let $D$ be a Euclidean domain with a Euclidean valuation $v$, and let $N$ be an ideal of $D$. If $N={0}$, then $N=left<0right>$ and $N$ is principal. Suppose that $N neq 0$. Then there exists $bneq0$ in N. Let us chose $b$ such that $v(b)$ is minimal among all $v(n)$ for $nin N$. We claim that $N=left<bright>$. Let $ain N$. Then by Condition 1 for a Euclidean domain, there exist $q$ and $r$ in $D$ such that
where either $r=0$ or $v(r)<v(b)$. Now, $r=a-bq$ and $a,bin N$, so that $rin N$, since $N$ is an ideal. Thus $v(r)<v(b)$ is impossible by our choice of $b$. Hence, $r=0$, so $a=bq$. Since $a$ was any element of $N$, we see that $N=left<bright>$.

My issue is, at the beginning of this proof it is assumed that there is some $b$ such that $v(b)$ is minimal among all $v(n)$, which is not necessarily true. For example, we can take $R$ to be the complex numbers under standard multiplication with a classic Euclidean norm of $v(a+bi)=a^2+b^2$. $R$ its self is obviously an ideal of $R$, but it does NOT have a minimal element in terms of valuation since one can pick numbers arbitrarily close to $0$.

Am I wrong? This proof is at its core based on this assumption, and so if it is not true the entire proof breaks. I feel like I must be misunderstanding this since this is a very important theorem and this is the proof given in almost every standard textbook.