Probability – A sufficient condition for a local martingale to be a martingale?

Is the function $ f $ meets the following

1. $ (t, omega) to f (t, omega) $ is $ mathcal {B} times mathcal {F} $ Where measurable $ mathcal {B} $ is the Borel Sigma algebra on $ (0, infty) $,

Second $ f (t, cdot) $ is $ mathcal {F} _t $ customized.

Third $ E ( int_0 ^ Tf ^ 2 (t, omega) dt) < infty $

We know that $ int_0 ^ TfdB $ is a martingale. Let us relax, however, condition (3) $$ P Big ( int_0 ^ Tg ^ 2 (t, omega) dt < infty Big) = 1 $$ then the resulting ito-integral $ int_0 ^ TgdB $ is a local martingale. Suppose we know that $$ E Big ( exp Big ( int_0 ^ TgdB_t- frac {1} {2} int_0 ^ Tg ^ 2dt Big) Big) = 1. $$ Is that enough to say that? $ int_0 ^ TgdB_t $ is a martingale? Any explanation is requested!

Web Application – Are Index, Nonce, and HMAC sufficient for session management?

I'm investigating session management for web applications. I have examined a few passages, and to my knowledge, we should not use secret as a session identifier (index). Because it can come to timing attacks.

Let's say server-side performance sessions are being cached. And the index is reset each time (for example, 1) when the server is restarted or when all are deleted.

session_payload = index || HMAC(server_key, index)

But if you do that, there's room for reruns, right? An attacker can generate a set of session payloads and save them for later hijacking sessions. Something is required for each session payload unique to prevent that, right?

So what about:

payload = index || nonce
session_payload = payload || HMAC(server_key, payload)

If my understanding is right, the nonce Must be unique to make the session payload clear. Should it just be the output of a CSPRNG, RNG or the current time (milliseconds?, Nanoseconds?)? What are the reservations of everyone?

If the above is done correctly, it should be able to avoid the following:

  • Timing attacks.
  • Volume attacks.
  • Repeat attacks. *
  • Manipulation.

Right? And are there any other attacks I should watch out for? Please exclude the session fix, which can be reduced by refreshing the session payload as permissions escalate.

  • What I'm defining through a replay attack is that opponents could save in-game session payloads and hijack sessions later, so using the nonce.

wireshark – Why is a packet not being sent by TCP until ACK is received if the window size is sufficient

The considered application (server) has a number of connected clients. It processes every message from the client and sends two output messages. The output messages are generated sequentially and written to the socket. I observe that sometimes the second spending message for a customer is delayed by a large amount of time. I try to understand the reason.

Below is the filtered TCP flow between the application and the client detected by the client side.

Enter image description here

  1. 14908 is the input message from the client. 14910 and 15337 are the two issue news.
  2. 14910 is not delayed. 15337, however, is delayed by 40ms.
  3. As I can see, the 15337 packet is not sent until the acknowledgment 15336 is received.

The application has already sent the message in packet 15336 immediately after 14910 to the TCP layer. Can you please help me to understand the causes of this delay?

XML Sitemap Best Practice for Multilingual Websites – Should I list my URLs in any language or is it sufficient to use rel = "alternate" + hreflang?

I am working on the sitemaps of a multilingual website and have doubts about the best way to refer to each language version of a page.

For a bit of background, the site points to around 20,000 places with community commentary and descriptions. The website is available in 5 languages ​​(; …)

Currently, my sitemap only refers to English pages and in the sitemap on every page I have specified for any language (as well as English) as recommended by Google.

In the Google search console, about 75% of the pages with valid coverage are described as "indexed, not submitted to the sitemap", so I think the alternative link with the "hreflang" attribute is not enough to display the page for " to "Google" to index it.

Do I have to list and use the pages in all 5 languages ​​in my sitemap? at every link?

Email server – Mail server sufficient to be considered non-spam with Gmail

I come to the point where I think that is beyond my ability to achieve anything.

I've been repeatedly building new servers on Digital Ocean (3) with Postfix, Dovecot, DKIM, and just about everything out there, and then emailing me on Gmail for a long time (or my test email on Hotmail) Posted. aannnd .. it is in the spam box.

Nothing I've done has ever allowed me to send an email from a server to Gmail where I have not set up spam. In addition, the next server will still be reported as spam.

Questions are:

  1. How can I find out the details of why the email (s) were sent to spam or how the report was generated?
  2. Will it ever be helpful to continue to send e-mails to friends and acquaintances (eg a family newsletter or similar) and mark them as spam protection?


Web server – Is a web application firewall sufficient to defend against SQL injection? or should I use prepared statements?

No, a WAF is probably not enough. It filters incoming network traffic and can block things that look nice SQL injection, but it all happens before the traffic gets to your application. By manipulating data / inputs with your own code, vulnerabilities can be admitted / introduced.

In addition, WAF is irrelevant if your application accepts input from sources other than incoming network traffic or processes data.

You should ensure that appropriate security precautions (such as prepared statements for SQL) are made in each component of your system rather than relying solely on another component (which may not always be present and may not always work as intended)) to remedy for you.

Is shared hosting sufficient for my projects?

Is shared hosting sufficient for my projects? | Web Hosting Talk

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  1. Is shared hosting sufficient for my projects?

    I want to open three Prestashop e-commerce stores (on 3 different domains of the same hosting account) that I want to advertise on AdWords.
    I have seen Hostmantis plans cheap so I can forward them. I would start with the cheaper plan, 9 usd for 6 months.
    Is this solution too weak for my project and my websites are not available or can I redirect?

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real analysis – Necessary and sufficient convergence condition according to Borel-Cantelli lemma

Given a sequence of random variables $ {X_n } _ {n = 1} ^ infty $The first Borel-Cantelli lemma tells us that there is a positive sequence $ {a_m } _ {m = 1} ^ infty $ for which:

$$ a_m overset {m rightarrow infty} { longrightarrow} 0 quad text {and} quad sum limits_ {n, m = 1} ^ infty mathbb {P} big ( vert X_n vert> a_m big) < infty tag {$ circledast $} $$
Then $ X_n $ almost certainly converges $ 0 $, My question is whether there is an inverse relationship, i. E. $ X_n rightarrow0 $ almost certainly implies that there is a positive sequence $ {a_m } $ so that $ circledast $ holds?

How do I care for dogs? Husky is the right way?

How do I care for dogs? Husky is the right way?

Husky dogs are really curious and hyperactive. It will be very difficult for you to take care of these dogs! So, how do you really care about husky dogs? Please read the article under Pet News.

Worth knowing about Husky

Husky dogs are a very lively breed, they can run and run all day long. Husky is also a very loyal and friendly dog ​​and loves life.

That is why Husky is loved by many owners and the number of people who raise him is growing.

However, sometimes Husky is quite persistent and hard to train so you have to be ready for any mission. When you raise a husky dog, you should check to see if you have the time, patience, energy, and dedication to give them a long, happy, and complete life.

How do I care for dogs? Husky is the right way?

Like many other breeds, Husky needs to be rich in protein, vitamins, and calcium so they can grow well in terms of health and physique.

Husky dog ​​diet by age

From 1-2 months:

Let Husky eat mixed rice and dry soft food with warm water for about 5 minutes with lean meat and divide it into 4 – 5 small meals a day.

From 3 to 6 months:

You should give Husky more rice with meat such as pork, beef, chicken, chicken eggs, vegetables and dry food to give the dog enough nutrients to grow. Husky dog ​​food should not be too pure or too thin. At this stage you should also avoid dogs eating large bones, as this is dangerous for dogs.

From 6 months:

From this point on, feed your dog 2-3 times a day and eat more food and calcium from meat, bones, animal organs, protein, protein and dried food. for big dogs, green vegetables, fruits, fruits like pumpkin, cabbage, need vegetables, carrots, radishes, cucumbers, nuts, …

Dogs should be fed 2 – 3 eggs or duck eggs every week to feed raw or boiled eggs in order to take care of husky dogs with a good coat.

Some things to consider when feeding husky dogs:

Drinking water for her must always be available, should be changed 3 times a day.

Avoid giving Husky babies too much starch, fat, fatty meat, fishy fish, or rancid products that cause Husky dogs to suffer from bowel disease. Do not feed your dog too much and do not let your dog be too hungry to cause indigestion.

Dog food should not be available, but it requires a stable time to feed your baby and clean clean dog food items daily.

So clean and care for feathers for husky dogs

Husky dogs have a thick, thick coat, but husky dogs are easy to care for. In particular, Husky's feathers fall only seasonally, so you do not have to worry about this problem. To cleanse and care for the Husky dog's coat, brush the dog with water spray only 2-3 times a week and brush off the dog to remove dead hair and straight hair. Husky has a thick and thick coat. Use a soft brush and brush 2-3 times a week. Use a jet of steam before brushing to remove dead hair. Soft, smooth.

For Husky you do not need to bathe regularly because they need time. You only need to shower them once or twice a month. Due to frequent bathing they sometimes lose hair, hair and skin diseases.

Husky dogs need to keep their bodies dry. You should dry them for dogs and whiten your dog regularly in the morning or evening to support the hair and prevent skin and fur diseases. Should a bath oil be chosen for dogs with low pH, the hair will be better supported for husky dogs.

For more information about pet types, visit the news page.


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