ubuntu – How can I check which suitable repositories / packages are validated by certain keys?

I inherited an Ubuntu 18.04 server to which some custom repositories and keys have been added in the past. I want to make sure all keys are still in use and see which packets are validated. Is there any way to do this?

I can list all the keys apt-key list and look inside /etc/apt/trusted.gpg[.d], but how can I compare them to repositories and packages?

cookies – Should JWTs be validated with every request?

I couldn't find a definitive answer to the question above.

We are currently using AWS Cognito JWTs for our authentication. Currently, the JWTs returned are too large to be used in cookies (above the 4K limit), so not all of the JWT is stored in cookies.

Our current process is to log in the user and then validate the received ID token (JWT). Then create one FormsAuthenticationTicket and Cookie from this information. The cookie contains the relevant ID information of the user and the expiry date of the ID token originally received.

This means that for all future page loads, we simply check whether the cookie has expired or not. If so, you have to register again.

Would the above work correctly or does the JWT have to be sent as a cookie and checked every time a page is requested?

Transaction cannot be validated (error when executing the script)

I have created a transaction in TESTNET and am trying to transfer it using the BlockCyphers function:


When I try, I get the following error message:

Transaction check failed: Failed to run input 0 script
261190892daa2c9aaaf25c20624f7f2941d2ad58dec883b0c929d1fa9306fd57 at 0:
Script was NOT verified successfully.

Here is the transaction. I don't understand what's going on and I don't know if I understand the mistake. Can someone help?

    "addresses": [
    "block_height": -1, 
    "block_index": -1, 
    "confirmations": 0, 
    "double_spend": false, 
    "fees": 12375, 
    "hash": "463372d7a8f456c882179635aabbeca4146396b1f81c05699a2e885e3f84d6e6", 
    "inputs": [
            "addresses": [
            "age": 1657999, 
            "output_index": 0, 
            "output_value": 5000000, 
            "prev_hash": "261190892daa2c9aaaf25c20624f7f2941d2ad58dec883b0c929d1fa9306fd57", 
            "script": "48304502210093b8ff9180a8a31a5ee7b0fb6c560aef888a3d53576e530cb4601dce2d3c51da02204fd8a28743f1d1100a2f56428e743501091e833550df6cf540bad4f5248a6d3c012102d794c7e1a8068782ef6ee68acf9f6ad9c84c78349671c1a7bf60418a8e1ed108", 
            "script_type": "pay-to-pubkey-hash", 
            "sequence": 4294967295
    "outputs": [
            "addresses": [
            "script": "a9149f792783320ffb5a4f3ee4c69525d4932ac0497087", 
            "script_type": "pay-to-script-hash", 
            "value": 500
            "addresses": [
            "script": "76a91486e0602ab38efd1811ff4db76f7d58c717c8598888ac", 
            "script_type": "pay-to-pubkey-hash", 
            "value": 4987125
    "preference": "high", 
    "received": "2020-01-10T05:09:49.945289619Z", 
    "relayed_by": "", 
    "size": 224, 
    "total": 4987625, 
    "ver": 2, 
    "vin_sz": 1, 
    "vout_sz": 2

bitcoin core – When exactly are the transactions validated?

I have some gaps in my understanding of the transaction's lifecycle that I want someone to help me specifically fill with the validation.

What I understand with my questions about the life cycle:

1] The transaction is logged out by the user through the Wallet app and sent to the Blockchain network.

The question at this step is: Does the Wallet app perform a transaction validation that requires checking the entire history of the blockchain at this level?

2] The sent transaction is now sent to many nodes in the network, and these nodes forward or "propagate" the transactions to other nodes until all nodes have that transaction in their "pool of unconfirmed transactions"?

Tell me if a part is wrong or not, in the right order

3] Each miner selects some transactions and starts mining.

When the miner selects the transactions, does he at this level validate each transaction that requires a full scan of the history of the blockchain?

4] When the miner releases the block, it sends this block, along with the hash value it generated, to the blockchain network in the same way that the transaction was sent to some nodes and passed to the rest. Then the nodes will hash the block header to see if it generates the same hash or not so they can accept that block.

The question here is: Do the nodes revalidate all transactions sent with the block header to make sure that they are genuine transactions that were not created by the miner who solved the block?

Does the validation of these transactions require a review of the entire history of the blockchain?

I know how Merkle trees has multiple transactions and that any change to the hash of a transaction alters the value of the Merkle root, but my question here is how helpful that is. Would the miner who has already faked one of the transactions not have the correct Merkel root for all transactions in the block, since he is the one who added them first? My point is, how does merkle root help? What value does it add? What kind of attack prevents it?

The final question is the consensus that, by definition, all nodes agree that they are at the same level as the new block. I know the PoW, but how do all the nodes check and communicate with each other to confirm that they all have the same block?

Consensus – Can I have a blockchain that has not been mined or validated?

I'm ready to use blockchain technology to implement the voting system. Therefore, I plan to create a private network that consists only of nodes that people vote on, so I do not want a miner or examiner. Is it possible to do it? Is there a consensus that allows this? Is it also possible to avoid double spending with smart contracts? (I plan to use a hash of voter fingerprints as an address, so I can restrict a person to vote only once with smart contracts.)
I am sorry for any misunderstandings, as I am still very new to the blockchain!

How can SQL changes be validated more effectively?

In my experience, SQL code changes are almost always NOT incremental: someone creates a new stored procedure or modifies an entire embedded SQL query for optimization or creates a brand new table. When I get one of these code validation requests, I could not find any other way than to understand the entire SQL query. Often these are really long nested queries, sometimes other procedures are called. Understanding and verifying these changes becomes a big task. Then I have three options: 1] to approve without careful examination; 2] Spend a lot of time going row by row, understanding the data model, interrogating a test system to see what it produces. 3] Ask the person to guide me through the changes.

I do not want to do 1 or 2. However, I do not want to spend hours figuring out what the entire query does and whether the new version is equivalent, but works faster.

Are there any technologies or tools or methods to simplify this process? How do others perform such checks without suffering too much pain?

A fundamental difference to regular code changes seems to be that SQL changes are more likely to become complete paraphrases, which makes the problem more common – for me, almost every SQL check I do every day.

All recommendations are highly appreciated.

laravel – Why can not the credentials in the LoginController.php controller be validated after using the make: auth command from php artisan?

Good day! I have my laravel project "proyectolaravel"; Now the project has implemented a credential entry and validation method using the laravel php artisan make: auth command, which is used when running the command in the /resources/views/auth/login.blade folder. php, in the part of the controller in the folder / App / Http / Controllers / Auth / (the controllers): ForgotPasswordController.php, LoginController.php, RegisterController.php, ResetPasswordController.php, VerificationController.php; and at the folder level /App/Http/Controllers/HomeController.php

In the controller /App/Http/Controllers/Auth/LoginController.php; In the following, one method was implemented to first display the login view "showLoginForm", and another method to verify the user's credentials to verify that the login method exists in the user table of the table, following the path:


        if (Auth::attemp(('usuario' => $request->usuario,'password' => $request->password,'condicion'=>1))){

            return redirect()->route('main');

        return back()->withErrors(('usuario' => trans('auth.failed')));

        protected function validateLogin(Request $request){
                'usuario' => 'required|string',
                'password' => 'required|string'


In the "web.php" route file located in the folder of my Laravel project "proyectolaravel" /routes/web.php; The ways to these methods were exhausted as follows:


Route::get('/categoria', 'CategoriaController@index');
Route::post('/categoria/registrar', 'CategoriaController@store');
Route::put('/categoria/actualizar', 'CategoriaController@update');
Route::put('/categoria/desactivar', 'CategoriaController@desactivar');
Route::put('/categoria/activar', 'CategoriaController@activar');
Route::get('/categoria/selectCategoria', 'CategoriaController@selectCategoria');

Route::get('/producto', 'ProductoController@index');
Route::post('/producto/registrar', 'ProductoController@store');
Route::put('/producto/actualizar', 'ProductoController@update');
Route::put('/producto/desactivar', 'ProductoController@desactivar');
Route::put('/producto/activar', 'ProductoController@activar');

Route::get('/proveedor', 'ProveedorController@index');
Route::post('/proveedor/registrar', 'ProveedorController@store');
Route::put('/proveedor/actualizar', 'ProveedorController@update');

Route::get('/cliente', 'ClienteController@index');
Route::post('/cliente/registrar', 'ClienteController@store');
Route::put('/cliente/actualizar', 'ClienteController@update');

Route::get('/rol', 'RolController@index');
Route::get('/rol/selectRol', 'RolController@selectRol');

Route::get('/user', 'UserController@index');
Route::post('/user/registrar', 'UserController@store');
Route::put('/user/actualizar', 'UserController@update');
Route::put('/user/desactivar', 'UserController@desactivar');
Route::put('/user/activar', 'UserController@activar');

Route::post('/login', 'AuthLoginController@login')->name('login');

Route::get('/home', 'HomeController@index')->name('home');

The truth is that if you redirect the project I've made "proyectolaravel" initially in the same file /routes/web.php it redirects to main / main to the login.php after the User credentials; that the logon file is as follows:


{{ csrf_field() }}

Compras - Ventas


What's in the folder /resources/views/auth/login.blade.php; that in the same file login.blade.php; There is an extension of the content.blade.php file in the same path as the file, which I will discuss below:



@yield (& # 39; login & # 39;)

While the project is running, the following screen appears, asking you for the user's credentials:

Laravel - Auth (authentication of user credentials)

This is the error message I get after entering the user credentials to authenticate myself to the login method. This error occurs:

Laravel - Auth was unable to authenticate itself to the LoginController controller

My question is: How do I resolve this error, which I get in the login method of the LoginController.php controller? Everything is based on the documentation of the following link or link:

Laravel – Auth (Authentication)

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Rating: 5

jquery – Indicates if a form has been validated

I have a question that drives me crazy because I do not know if there is a solution. I am adding a JQuery code in $ (document) so that the Send button is disabled in all forms of my page when I send it The user can only click once to prevent duplicate records from being created. Well, the code I'm showing you below works perfectly, because when you submit a form, the Submit Form button is disabled, but of course, there is the problem that it's disabled always The form will be sent final or not. Because these forms have some checks (), the Submit button must be disabled Only if the transmission is successful Therefore, onsubmit is not worth anything to me, as the button should still be enabled so that the user can correct the form and resubmit it if the form is not finally sent because it does not fulfill the checks. How can I tell if the form I submitted has been sent or if the submission was interrupted during validation?
Many thanks !!!


      $(this).find('input(type="submit")').attr("disabled", true);