## stochastic processes – Differentiable approximation of Brownian diffusion with bounded volatility

Yes. Let $$X_t := int^t_0 sigma_s mathrm dW_s$$. Due to Theorem V.6 from the book Stochastic Integration and Differential Equations (second edition) by P.E. Protter, there is a continuous and adapted process $${tilde X^n_t}_{tin(0;T)}$$ such that
$$tilde X^n_t = int^t_0 n cdot big( tilde X^n_s – X_s big) mathrm ds.$$
Hence we define $$tildesigma^n_s := n cdot ( tilde X^n_s – X_s )$$, which is adapted and even continuous.

To prove the limit property, we first prove the following:

Lemma 1. For all $$beta,delta in (0;infty)$$, there exists $$nu in (0;infty)$$ such that
$$mathbb P bigg( sup_{0 le s le t le min(s+nu,T)} bigg| int^t_s sigma_u mathrm dW_u bigg| le beta bigg) ge 1 – delta.$$
Proof: We discretize the interval $$(0;T)$$ and consider events that its increments stay bounded. For all integer $$0 le k < N$$ and all $$alpha in (0;infty)$$, we define
$$A^alpha_{k,N} := bigg{ max_{frac{T}{N} k le t le frac{T}{N} (k+1)} bigg| int_{frac{T}{N} k}^t sigma_u mathrm dW_u bigg| ge alpha bigg}.$$
Due to the Burkholder–Davis–Gundy inequality (since $$sigma$$ is bounded, say $$vertsigmavert le overlinesigma$$),
$$mathbb Ebigg( max_{T/Ncdot k le t le T/Ncdot (k+1)} bigg| int_{T/Ncdot k}^t sigma_u mathrm dW_u bigg|^4 bigg) le C_4 mathbb Ebigg( bigglangle int_{T/Ncdot k}^cdot sigma_u mathrm dW_u biggrangle_{T/Ncdot (k+1)}^2 bigg) \= C_4 mathbb Ebigg( bigg( int_{T/Ncdot k}^{T/Ncdot (k+1)} big(sigma_ubig)^2 mathrm du bigg)^2 bigg) le C_4 bigg( frac{T} N cdot overlinesigma^2 bigg)^2 = N^{-2} C$$
and due to the Markov inequality, we obtain
$$mathbb P big( A^alpha_{k,N} big) le alpha^{-4} mathbb Ebigg( max_{T/Ncdot k le t le T/Ncdot (k+1)} bigg| int_{T/Ncdot k}^t sigma_u mathrm dW_u bigg|^4 bigg) le alpha^{-4} N^{-2} C$$
Now we assume that $$omega in Omega backslash bigcup_{k=0}^{N-1} A^alpha_{k,N}$$ and assume $$s, t in (0;T)$$ with $$s le t le s + T/N$$. Then we can find a $$k in {0,ldots,N-1}$$ such that $$T/Ncdot k le s le T/Ncdot (k+1) le t le T/Ncdot (k+2)$$ or $$T/Ncdot k le s le t le T/Ncdot (k+1)$$. In the first case, we obtain
$$bigg| bigg(int^t_s sigma_u mathrm dW_ubigg)(omega) bigg| le bigg| bigg(int_{T/Ncdot (k+1)}^t sigma_u mathrm dW_ubigg)(omega) bigg| + bigg| bigg(int_{T/Ncdot k}^{T/Ncdot (k+1)} sigma_u mathrm dW_ubigg)(omega) bigg| \ quad + bigg| bigg(int_{T/Ncdot k}^s sigma_u mathrm dW_ubigg)(omega) bigg| le 3 alpha.$$
In the second case, we get the same result analogously.

Let $$omega in Omega backslash bigcup_{k=0}^{N-1} A^alpha_{k,N}$$ and $$s, t in (0;T)$$ with $$|s – t| le frac{T}{N}$$. Then, $$bigg| bigg(int^t_s sigma_u mathrm dW_ubigg)(omega) bigg| leq 3 alpha$$ and so
$$Omega backslash bigcup_{k=0}^{N-1} A^alpha_{k,N} subseteq bigg{ max_{s,tin (0;T), |s-t| le frac T N} bigg| int^t_s sigma_u mathrm dW_u bigg| le 3 alpha bigg}.$$
As a result, if $$N$$ is large enough,
$$mathbb P bigg( max_{s,tin (0;T), |s-t| le frac T N} bigg| int^t_s tildesigma_u mathrm dW_u bigg| le 3 alpha bigg) \ge 1 – sum_{k=0}^{N-1} mathbb P big( A^alpha_{k,N} big) ge 1 – frac{C}{alpha^{4} N^{1}} ge 1 – delta,$$
which proves the statement.

Since $$tilde X^n$$ always moves into the direction of $$X$$, we also have the following:

Lemma 2.
$$sup_{t in (0;T)} vert tilde X^n_t vert le sup_{t in (0;T)} vert X_t vert$$

Now since the increments of $$X$$ are bounded on an event of large probability due to Lemma 1, it is also straightforward to prove this:

Lemma 3. Let
$$M^{beta,nu}:=bigg{sup_{0 le s le t le min(s+nu,T)} bigg| int^t_s sigma_u mathrm dW_u bigg| le betabigg}.$$
Then for all $$omegain M$$, we have
$$sup_{tin (0;T)} bigvert tilde X^{beta/nu}_t – X_t bigvert le 3 beta.$$

Now we prove the main statement. Let $$n:=beta/nu$$. Due to the Minkovski inequality,
$$sqrt{ mathbb Ebigg( int^T_0 big( tilde X^n_s – X_s big)^2 mathrm dt bigg) } \le sqrt{ mathbb Ebigg( mathbb 1_{M^{beta,nu}} int^T_0 big( tilde X^n_s – X_s big)^2 mathrm dt bigg) } + sqrt{ mathbb Ebigg( mathbb 1_{Omegabackslash M^{beta,nu}} int^T_0 big( tilde X^n_s – X_s big)^2 mathrm dt bigg) }$$
The first summand can be bound directly by $$3 beta sqrt T$$ using Lemma 2. The second summand can be bound using Hölder inequality by
$$mathbb Ebigg( int^T_0 mathbb 1_{Omegabackslash M^{beta,nu}} big( tilde X^n_s – X_s big)^2 mathrm dt bigg) \le sqrt{ mathbb Ebigg( int^T_0 mathbb 1_{Omegabackslash M^{beta,nu}} mathrm dt bigg) } sqrt{ mathbb Ebigg( int^T_0 big( tilde X^n_s – X_s big)^4 mathrm dt bigg) } = sqrt T sqrt{1 – mathbb Pbig(M^{beta,nu}big) } sqrt{ mathbb Ebigg( int^T_0 big( tilde X^n_s – X_s big)^4 mathrm dt bigg) }$$
The first factor can be made arbitrarily small if choosing $$nu$$ small enough depending on $$beta$$ due to Lemma 1, and the second factor is bounded due to the boundedness of $$sigma$$ and Lemma 2.

## Volatility Pivots – Vertexfx Indicator

Volatility Pivots is a trend following indicator. The indicator is calculated based on currency pair volatility displaying the nearest support and resistance levels. It uses the average true range and the exponential moving average of price in calculating support resistance levels. Then it plots these levels as a line on the chart. When the price is above the pivot line, it indicates an uptrend, and the price action below the pivot line indicates a down trend. Positions can be opened in the direction of the trend.

## detection – Volatility Framework results for ML classification models

I am trying to figure out which features that are extracted from the volatile memory can be used for (binary) classification. More precisely, I am using the volatility framework, and I want to determine which plugins are the best to return possible abnormal activity indicators. For example, I have seen that the psxview plugin returns significant results since it compares a process’s visibility in 7 different ways. Therefore, any other plugin or features suggestion to search on it will be beneficial.

The memory dumps that I want to classify includes malware that creates reversed TCP shells by using obfuscating techniques (e.g. Shellter Kali Linux)

## Industry Round Table: BitCoin and Price Volatility

Every month, LowEndBox puts a question in front of hosting industry leaders and LEB community providers, who are invited to comment and offer their perspective.  Our goal is to stimulate discussion around important issues in the industry, inform our readership, and help other providers so the community as a whole benefits.  If you have a question you’d like to put to the round table, please submit it to us!

This month’s question:

Do you take Bitcoin (or other Cryptocurrency)?  If yes, how do you deal with the wild changes in value we’ve seen recently.  If you don’t take it, why not?

Jay, CEO of NexusBytes

As a global business, a lot of our family members are from countries, where Credit/Debit card comes with hefty international transaction fees and paypal isn’t an option. Crypto currency fulfills that void. Here at Nexus Bytes, we accept major crypto currency such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, Etherium and Bitcoin Cash.

Crypto currency is yet to become a stable flat currency, that we could rely on to perform day to day transactions. To most, this is still an asset rather than currency, with real world value. Which also creates a volatile market, where the currency loses stability.

Here at Nexus Bytes, we usually (and almost always instantly) convert and withdraw expense portion of the currency to USD. We convert the rest to BTC and keep the remainder (profit) as future investment and let it ride the wave.

Dustin Cisneros, CEO of RackNerd

RackNerd who was voted #1 as LowEndTalk’s top provider accepts cryptocurrency payments via Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, Ethereum, and ZCash.

It goes without saying that cryptocurrency’s value is constantly variable and dynamic, and while at some times, what an end-user pays you via cryptocurrency today may go up in value tomorrow, as a company you should also be prepared if it were to go the other direction. A handful of transaction’s potential variable amount should not impact your health as a company – and I think that also improves with scale as you continue to grow as a company.

The number one reason why businesses fail today is because their ideas/products weren’t sold quickly enough, AND in quantities high enough. You need to have both margin and volume in order to run a sustainable business that can weather any economic impact. In my last guest post here, I went over 5 tips on how to succeed and expand as a business in 2021, and how you can continue to expand your business even during COVID-19 times. In conclusion, you can monitor your cryptocurrency transactions to see the value change on a day-by-day basis and take actions based on what you as a company are comfortable with, or alternatively – some payment processors may offer the ability to immediately convert the cryptocurrency payment from the end-user to USD for you.

Justin Blanchard, CMO of ServerMania

ServerMania accepts Bitcoin as the only form of cryptocurrency, however, customers must speak to a sales agent when placing the order to receive instructions on how to complete the payment. This is an easy process that can be completed through live chat, ticket or over the phone at the time of checkout.

Bitcoin’s current exchange rate will be charged at the time of submitting the order. For example, if the request is being made on a Saturday the order may not be processed until Monday (during sales hours), so charges would reflect Monday’s Bitcoin exchange rate.

We will be placing more of a priority on building a module for Bitcoin on our order form once we see the increase in demand from Bitcoin paying customers.

Ditlev Bredahl, CEO, OnApp

As you probably know, we don’t sell cloud hosting, instead we enable hosts to sell cloud – and looking at our data since 2010, some of our customers do offer crypto as an option alongside traditional currencies, but mainstream currencies are still most popular. But, that stuff isn’t important.

What’s important about crypto is that it’s an enabler for hosts. It’s a way to escape the clutches of VISA, Mastercard, Paypal. I bet most people reading this have been kicked from their payment provider at some point, or they’ve had funds frozen. That’s because of chargebacks from “establishment” payment systems, or KYC, or because of content restrictions etc. But if you think about “how to implement payment” in the first place, the point is: not everyone finds it easy to get a bank account, let alone a payment provider.

I’m not trying to pick on specific countries, but what if you’re an entrepreneur in Indonesia, for example? You have a great idea, you have a USP, you have your infra and your service… but you’re forced to go with a payment solution that’s charging you 3-5%, your 2checkout for example. You’re a start-up, it isn’t sustainable. With BTC it can either be fully P2P, or a middle-man situation with a commission that’s more like 0.1%.

If hosts start accepting BTC, then BTC starts becoming part of the ecosystem. And in terms of fluctuation, you have options there too: stablecoin, for example. Crypto isn’t mainstream yet – it will be a while before your average head of accounts or CFO is looking to pay their invoices with cryptocurrency – but it will happen. Has to.

Thank you to all of our providers for participating this month!

If you have a question you’d like to put to the round table, please submit it to us!

### raindog308

I’m Andrew, techno polymath and long-time LowEndTalk community Moderator. My technical interests include all things Unix, perl, python, shell scripting, and relational database systems. I enjoy writing technical articles here on LowEndBox to help people get more out of their VPSes.

## Alternatives to volatility

I often have to analyze memories and I always use volatility.
But for a while now I’ve been having some problems with the software and I was wondering if there are any viable alternatives to volatility to replace it.

## ❓ASK – Volatility of Crypto currencies with government involvement. | Proxies-free

Yes, even the government, now thinking only of the settlement of the new president of the United States of America, Joe Biden, have a particular influence on the economy, and therefore also on the fluctuations of cryptocurrencies.
And these, yes, can be experienced.

## volatility – Volatility3 crashes on Kali

I’m trying to use volatility3 to examine a linux image which I created using LiME, I run the following command with the errors.. (I downloaded the linux.zip symbol file from the volatility repo and also placed in in /volatility/symbols)

Also tried to create my own json file using

./dwarf2json linux –system-map /boot/System.map-5.9.0-kali1-amd64 > kali.json

python3 vol.py -vvvvvvv -f /Linux64.mem linux.pslist.PsList 1 ⨯
Volatility 3 Framework 2.0.0
INFO root : Volatility plugins path: (‘/home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/plugins’, ‘/home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/plugins’)
INFO root : Volatility symbols path: (‘/home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/symbols’, ‘/home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/symbols’)
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/plugins, /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/plugins
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/automagic
Level 7 root : Cache directory used: /home/user/.cache/volatility3
INFO volatility.framework.automagic: Detected a linux category plugin
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/layers
INFO volatility.framework.automagic: Running automagic: ConstructionMagic
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/layers
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: IndexError – No configuration provided: plugins.PsList.primary
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: Symbol table requirement not yet fulfilled: plugins.PsList.vmlinux
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/layers
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: IndexError – No configuration provided: plugins.PsList.primary
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/layers
Level 9 volatility.framework.automagic.construct_layers: Failed on requirement: plugins.PsList.primary
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: IndexError – No configuration provided: plugins.PsList.primary
Level 9 volatility.framework.automagic.construct_layers: Failed on requirement: plugins.PsList
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/layers
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: Symbol table requirement not yet fulfilled: plugins.PsList.vmlinux
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/layers
Level 9 volatility.framework.automagic.construct_layers: Failed on requirement: plugins.PsList.vmlinux
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: Symbol table requirement not yet fulfilled: plugins.PsList.vmlinux
Level 9 volatility.framework.automagic.construct_layers: Failed on requirement: plugins.PsList
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/layers
Level 6 volatility.framework.automagic.construct_layers: Construction Exception occurred: Unexpected config value found: None
INFO volatility.framework.automagic: Running automagic: LinuxBannerCache
Level 6 volatility.framework.symbols.intermed: Searching for symbols in /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/symbols, /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/symbols
INFO volatility.framework.automagic.symbol_cache: Building linux caches…
Level 7 volatility.framework.layers.resources: Available URL handlers: HTTPErrorProcessor, HTTPDefaultErrorHandler, HTTPRedirectHandler, ProxyHandler, HTTPBasicAuthHandler, ProxyBasicAuthHandler, HTTPDigestAuthHandler, ProxyDigestAuthHandler, AbstractHTTPHandler, HTTPHandler, HTTPSHandler, HTTPCookieProcessor, UnknownHandler, FileHandler, FTPHandler, CacheFTPHandler, DataHandler, JarHandler
INFO volatility.framework.automagic: Running automagic: LayerStacker
Level 6 volatility.framework: Importing from the following paths: /home/user/apps/volatility3/volatility/framework/layers
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: IndexError – No configuration provided: plugins.PsList.primary
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: Symbol table requirement not yet fulfilled: plugins.PsList.vmlinux
Level 8 volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Attempting to stack using QemuStacker
Level 8 volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Attempting to stack using Elf64Stacker
Level 6 volatility.framework.layers.elf: Exception: Bad magic 0x4c694d45 at file offset 0x0
Level 8 volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Attempting to stack using LimeStacker
Level 8 volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Stacked LimeLayer using LimeStacker
Level 8 volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Attempting to stack using QemuStacker
Level 8 volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Attempting to stack using Elf64Stacker
Level 6 volatility.framework.layers.elf: Exception: Offset 0x0 does not exist within the base layer
Level 8 volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Attempting to stack using WindowsCrashDumpStacker
Level 8 volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Attempting to stack using VmwareStacker
Level 8 volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Attempting to stack using LinuxIntelStacker
DEBUG volatility.framework.automagic.linux: No suitable linux banner could be matched
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: IndexError – No configuration provided: plugins.PsList.primary
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: TypeError – Layer is not the required Architecture: LimeLayer
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: TypeError – Layer is not the required Architecture: FileLayer
DEBUG volatility.framework.automagic.stacker: Stacked layers: (‘LimeLayer’, ‘FileLayer’)
INFO volatility.framework.automagic: Running automagic: LinuxSymbolFinder
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: Symbol table requirement not yet fulfilled: plugins.PsList.vmlinux
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: IndexError – No configuration provided: plugins.PsList.primary
Level 9 volatility.framework.configuration.requirements: Symbol table requirement not yet fulfilled: plugins.PsList.vmlinux

Unsatisfied requirement plugins.PsList.primary: Memory layer for the kernel
Unsatisfied requirement plugins.PsList.vmlinux: Linux kernel symbols

A symbol table requirement was not fulfilled. Please verify that:
You have the correct symbol file for the requirement
The symbol file is under the correct directory or zip file
The symbol file is named appropriately or contains the correct banner

A translation layer requirement was not fulfilled. Please verify that:
A file was provided to create this layer (by -f, –single-location or by config)
The file exists and is readable
The necessary symbols are present and identified by volatility
Unable to validate the plugin requirements: (‘plugins.PsList.primary’, ‘plugins.PsList.vmlinux’)

## forensics – Finding NonPagedPool Start and End Address using volatility

I am exploiting bluekeep vulnerability in windows server 2008 R2 using metasploit framework. When I run the exploit `windows/rdp/cve_2019_0708_bluekeep_rce`, it ends in BSOD on server and then server restarts. I searched on internet and found that I might have to change GROOMBASE address in exploit. I am using volatility to get this address on server memory dump. Here is the command I came up with;

``````.volatility_2.6_win64_standalone.exe --profile=Win2008R2SP1x64 -f vm.memdump bigpools
``````

But this command gives me never ending output;

``````Volatility Foundation Volatility Framework 2.6
Allocation         Tag      PoolType                   NumberOfBytes
------------------ -------- -------------------------- -------------
0xfffff8a002dc3000 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x1000L
0xfffff8a0074e6000 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x1000L
0xfffff8a003747000 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x1000L
0xfffffa8000eb7000 Cont     NonPagedPool               0x1000L
0xfffff8a0040cb000 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x1000L
0xfffff8a004a4f000 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x2000L
0xfffff8a000cb0000 CIcr     PagedPool                  0x3330L
0xfffff8a0053d3000 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x1000L
0xfffff8a001634001 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x1000L
0xfffff8a005d57000 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x1000L
0xfffff8a001fb8000 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x1000L
0xfffff8a0066db000 CM31     PagedPoolCacheAligned      0x1000L
and goes on ..
``````

I had to interrupt the command to make it stop. Then I randomly used first NPP address which (definitely id not correct) gave me BSOD on server and metasploit output is here.

``````(*) 192.168.0.60:3389 - Using auxiliary/scanner/rdp/cve_2019_0708_bluekeep as check
(+) 192.168.0.60:3389     - The target is vulnerable. The target attempted cleanup of the incorrectly-bound MS_T120 channel.
(*) 192.168.0.60:3389     - Scanned 1 of 1 hosts (100% complete)
(*) 192.168.0.60:3389 - Using CHUNK grooming strategy. Size 250MB, target address 0xfffffa8011e07000, Channel count 1.
(!) 192.168.0.60:3389 - <---------------- | Entering Danger Zone | ---------------->
(*) 192.168.0.60:3389 - Surfing channels ...
(*) 192.168.0.60:3389 - Lobbing eggs ...
(*) 192.168.0.60:3389 - Forcing the USE of FREE'd object ...
(!) 192.168.0.60:3389 - <---------------- | Leaving Danger Zone | ---------------->
(*) Started bind TCP handler against 192.168.0.60:4444
(*) Exploit completed, but no session was created.
``````

I guess above result is due to wrong GROOMBASE address which I selected.

The link (given above) I am following uses docker to get NPP Start address. My question is can I find that address using volatility as its also a memory forensic tool. Please suggest which command should I be using?

## China state banks plan curbs on metals, Forex Trades If U.S. Election Fuels Volatility – Forex News & Analysis

Two major state-owned Chinese banks warned on Monday that they could restrict the trading of precious metals and foreign exchange products if this week’s U.S. presidential election fuels market volatility.

Bank of China 601988.SS3988.HK, the fourth-largest lender by assets, said it might curb or suspend such trade, while Bank of Communications 601328.SS said it was taking steps to potentially limit spreads and transactions during the election.

“We expect volatility in the precious metals and foreign exchange market to increase significantly between Nov. 3 and Nov. 4,” Bank of China said in an online statement.

“Market liquidity will be notably lowered, and market risks may intensify.”

The bank said it might suspend trading of affected products “under the extreme scenario of a liquidity crunch”, and cap trading volumes during the election.

Bank of Communications said it would make “flexible adjustments” and restrict transactions based on international market quotations and market liquidity.

Both lenders said curbs would be lifted once the market stabilized, however.

Traders and FX brokers are closely watching the outcome of the election, with Republican President Donald Trump trailing Democratic challenger Joe Biden in national opinion polls.

.

## How Broker Reaction Face Volatility Chf – General Forex Questions & Help

yesterday turmoil huge price to CHF pair. some brokers losses and threatened with bankruptcy. This can give you an idea of resistance brokers against unforeseen events so that traders can use it as a reference for the selection of brokers.

As you may already know, yesterday morning there was a very sudden and massive move in Swiss Franc pairs. CHF pairs have never seen this record-high volatility. Within few moments EURCHF dropped to below 1 from an early morning solid-high above 1.20. Other CHF pairs experienced similar extreme moves seen with EURCHF.

What does it mean for traders?

Of course, it was a golden-opportunity for many traders to earn quite a lot. Clients of many brokers, however, were not able to profit from this move due to requotes and rejects. Many brokers have started to cancel Client profits with reference to various causes and contract conditions. We are very sorry to see that happening!

Why Tickmill Clients remain calm?

Simple! Because as always, we didn’t issue a single re-quote and our Clients can keep their profits in their pockets.

We are proud to report that it is business as usual at Tickmill as client trading and all other processes are going normally.

Tickmill is proud of its strong reputation and integrity. We thank our customers for their continued loyalty and welcome new traders who want to experience outstanding service and execution.

This is Tickmill’s approach to trading and serving our clients! We welcome all new Clients!