centos – The read / write NFS Mountpoint returns a read-only file system error while writing

I have two nodes running CentOS Linux version 7.3.1611 (Core), one for computing (mu01) and one for storage (io01). As root, I have a directory mounted /data on io01 to /data on mu01 of mount -t nfs -o vers=4 io01:/data /data, However, when I tried to write to the directory (as root or other users), the following error message was displayed:

(root@mu01 data)# touch test1
touch: cannot touch 'test1': Read-only file system

mount returns (on mu01):

io01:/data on /data type nfs4 (rw,relatime,vers=4.0,rsize=1048576,wsize=1048576,namlen=255,hard,proto=tcp,port=0,timeo=600,retrans=2,sec=sys,clientaddr=,local_lock=none,addr=

cat /proc/mounts returns (on mu01):

io01:/data /data nfs4 rw,relatime,vers=4.0,rsize=1048576,wsize=1048576,namlen=255,hard,proto=tcp,port=0,timeo=600,retrans=2,sec=sys,clientaddr=,local_lock=none,addr= 0 0

My /etc/fstab reads (on mu01):

# /etc/fstab
# Created by anaconda on Wed Jun 13 19:15:02 2018
# Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk'
# See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info
UUID=f2f4003d-48fe-41db-af00-811e6bc8ec73 /                       xfs     defaults        0 0
UUID=b01e3e3f-2c51-494e-b74b-f72e2ba0a1c1 /boot                   xfs     defaults        0 0
UUID=9dbef967-1854-4079-96c5-8905674d446b swap                    swap    defaults        0 0

my /etc/exports (on io01) reads:


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Ubuntu server and disk cache – bad writing performance

I noticed this problem for the first time when I was trying to create a RAID 1 array of two spare HGST drives. That's 8MB of 5400 RPM and 1TB cache drives, not the fastest things in the world. Nevertheless, what I see is very bizarre.

I have created a simple RAID 1 array with mdadm on Ubuntu Server 18.04, and that was when I noticed that it was resynchronized at 1200 or so KB / s and would take a few days to get done. Something was wrong.

I wanted to see what was going on with the drives, and after checking that the SMART data was excellent for both, I benchmarked with dd. Use command dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdx bs=8k count=y and varying the count, I found something interesting. If the count was less than 1000 (ie, less than 8 MB of total data – the cache size of the drive), I would achieve write speeds of about 100 MB / s, which are perfectly acceptable for a drive of this type. However, as soon as I increase the number to 1000 or more, the write speeds drop to only 1 MB / s and 4 MB / s if it works well.

I wonder if anyone has ever seen that. I took out the drives and threw them on a USB2 Sata adapter. When using crystaldiskmark both achieved a reading speed of about 100 MB / s and 50 MB / s. Again not so fast, but definitely much better than the results of dd and mdadm.

So, what the hell is going on? Is there a firmware problem with the drives and Ubuntu? They are listed as "Advanced Format" drives, but I got the impression that AF has not been a problem since 2010. I'm at a loss here because I'm still a relatively inexperienced Linux user and have never seen how drives behave like this before.

Oh, just to make sure that this is not a hardware issue on the server, I tried the same slot with a known good drive, and achieved flawless read and write speeds.

Every help is appreciated! Many thanks.

Idiomatic method for writing correct F # (x) unit and fsunit tests?

I am writing some unit tests with XUnit in F # and wondering how to write them most idiomatically in F #.

Let's start a simple case:


module Rm.Bai.Domain.BicValidationTests
open Rm.Bai.Domain.BicValidation
open FsUnit
open Xunit

let shortValidBic    = "MYMB gb 2L"
let expectedShortBic = "MYMBGB2L"
let ok               = Result.Ok
let error            = Result.Error

let ``Short Bic should be valid when all rules are respected`` () =
    |> validateAndFormat
    |> should equal (ok expectedShortBic)

I am not sure if it is better to include the values ​​directly in the test functions, knowing that the different test functions have nothing in common, such as:

let ``Short Bic should be valid when all rules are respected`` () =
    "MYMB gb 2L"
    |> validateAndFormat
    |> should equal (ok "MYMBGB2L")

This seems all the more so when I received an answer here
This seems to indicate that you need to rely on the declaration for multiple test files typeto contain s / classes let Variables for things other than primitive types like numbers or strings.

For example:

let sepaCompliantBics = (

let ``Bics should be valid with SEPA-compliant countries`` () =
    |> List.map(fun bic -> (validateAndFormat bic, bic))
    |> List.iter(fun (validation, bic) -> validation |> should equal (ok bic))

sepaCompliantBics in the above example is set to null if it is not the first file in the test project.

The solutions are then:

type Tests() = 
    let ok               = Result.Ok
    let error            = Result.Error

    let sepaCompliantBics = (

    let ``Bics should be valid with SEPA-compliant countries`` () =
        |> List.map(fun bic -> (validateAndFormat bic, bic))
        |> List.iter(fun (validation, bic) -> validation |> should equal (ok bic))


let getSepaCompliantBics() = (

let ``Bics should be valid with SEPA-compliant countries`` () =
    |> List.map(fun bic -> (validateAndFormat bic, bic))
    |> List.iter(fun (validation, bic) -> validation |> should equal (ok bic))

or again:

let ``Bics should be valid with SEPA-compliant countries`` () =
        // this can be a pretty long list btw
    |> List.map(fun bic -> (validateAndFormat bic, bic))
    |> List.iter(fun (validation, bic) -> validation |> should equal (ok bic))

So I'm wondering if it's a problem to have a long list like the one above if it's defined in the test function itself and not outside the list? Is it still an idiomatic way to write unit tests with F #?

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abstract algebra – Weibel task 3.3.1 how to $ Ext_Z ^ 1 (Z[1/p], Z) cong has {Z} _p / Z $ without writing down the card?

This is related to the Weibel Exercise 3.3.1. Show that $ Ext_Z ^ 1 (Z (1 / p), Z) cong has {Z} _p / Z cong Z_ {p ^ infty} $,

I solved the problem as follows. Take the short exact order of the following.

$ 0 to Z to Z (1 / p) to Z_ {p ^ infty} to 0 $ $ ( star_0) $

Use the following projective resolution.

$ 0 to Z to Z to $ 0

$ 0 to oplus_i (p ^ iZ) to Z oplus ( oplus_i (Z)) to Z (1 / p) to 0 $ $ ( star_2) $

$ 0 to oplus_i (p ^ iZ) to oplus_i Z to Z_ {p ^ infty} to 0 $ $ ( star_3) $

$ ( star_2) $The construction is done by horseshoe lemma. An indication of this $ ( star_2) $The recording is done by canonical recording $ oplus_i (p ^ iZ) to oplus_i Z $ whereas $ ( star_3) $ This inclusion is given by $ z to (0, z) $, Now I can directly expect the resolution by seeing $ 0 to Hom (Z, Z) xrightarrow { delta} Ext ^ 1 (Z (1 / p), Z) to Ext ^ 1 (Z_ {p ^ infty}, Z) to 0 $ from where $ Delta $ Specifically, inclusion provides pullback and identifies this $ Z to Ext ^ 1 (Z_ {p ^ infty}, Z) $ by $ 1 in Z to 1 in has {Z} _p $, I can conclude that $ Ext ^ 1_Z (Z (1 / p), Z) cong has {Z} _p / Z cong Z_ {p ^ infty} $ from where $ Ext ^ 1 (Z_ {p ^ infty}, Z) = has {Z} _p $ by directly pulling out the limit.

$ textbf {Q:} $ Is it possible to identify $ Ext ^ 1_Z (Z (1 / p), Z) cong Z_ {p ^ infty} $ without identifying the Coboundary Operator action? (ie, there are too many possibilities, like $ Z $ sits inside $ has {Z} _p $, I have to identify a specific one and calculate it.)