web development – Are there alternitives to HTML and CSS

At the end of the day, a web browser can only render HTML and CSS, so in a sense no.

It is cold comfort, but for certain spaces of web design there are other languages that “compile” to HTML or CSS or that can produce HTML and CSS that will help ease the burden.

For CSS there are tools like Sass which eases some of the issues that come with writing lots of CSS. There are also template languages that people often use to copy paste different sections of HTML maybe fed with external data like Handlebars and maybe provide a “nicer looking” view over HTML like Pug.

There are also “CSS Frameworks” like Bootstrap or Semantic UI which provide a pre-made CSS classes that you can use to make common UI elements.

If you are in a space where you render your web page using Javascript in some way, as with React or similar frameworks, there are ways you can “scope” your HTML and CSS which can reduce the overhead of writing large HTML documents and let you split things up into separate components. There are often components that will make it more convenient to use those “CSS Frameworks” as well.

Personally though, the only piece of tech that I know of that gives you something totally separate from HTML and CSS is Elm UI. That has the overhead of you needing to learn and commit to a specific programming language and paradigm though, so YMMV depending on what you are doing, I like it though.